"Extraction of Tannic Acid from Macassar Kernels (Brucea Javanica) Using Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction"
By Dr. Mardawani Mohamad

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1 Question from Dr. krishna veni Could you please explain Figure 5, a, b and c?
Answer from presenter Thank you for the question. Sorry about the missing labels in FTIR results (as referred to Figure 5). The red line of FTIR spectra refers to (a) untreated sample, orange line of FTIR spectra refers to (b) conventional extract and blue line refers to (c) UAE extraction. Compared with the FTIR spectrum of untreated sample, the spectra of conventional and UAE extract have undergone changes. The peak between 3000 and 2700 cm-1 gradually became broader after undergoes extraction for both extraction methods. It could be because the existence of intense hydrogen bond. The peaks at 1034 cm-1 associated to the CO-O-CO bridges gradually became combined and broadened. This transition may be due to environmental changes to untreated sample as the vibration of the C=O groups was influenced by the formation of bridges -CH2-.
2 Question from Dr. Salmiah Jamal Mat Rosid What the significance of FTIR in comparison conventional and UAE?
Answer from presenter Thank you for the question. Regarding to Figure 5, the orange line of FTIR spectra refers to conventional method and blue line of FTIR spectra refers to UAE. The FTIR of tannic acid spectra in conventional and UAE extracts show identical peak patterns. The wide bonds in the 3400-3200 cm-1 range are correlated with the –OH stretching of the phenolic group. Peaks were observed at 3327 cm-1 in conventional extract and 3319 cm-1 in UAE extract. The aromatic C-C stretching vibrations can be assigned to peaks around 1635 cm-1, both in the conventional and UAE extract range. The comparison of both methods is not significance in term of FTIR analysis but the comparison was quite significance in SEM analysis which is not being included in this results. From SEM analysis, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction method (UAE) show rupture of the cell and creating more pores to increasing the penetration of solvent and thus the yield of extraction ultrasonic-assisted extraction method (UAE) higher than conventional extraction method. The comparison of conventional and UAE being studied focusing on the extraction time of tannic acid compounds whereas the optimum time being obtained at 6 hours for conventional and 30 minutes of sonication time for UAE.
3 Question from Miss AQILAH BINTI ABDUL RAHIM Interesting
4 Question from Mr. Ferid Abdulhafiz May I know what type of conventional method you used?
Answer from presenter type of conventional method that being used is maceration process
5 Question from Mr. Ferid Abdulhafiz Interesting research finding.
6 Question from Mr. Ferid Abdulhafiz Thanks for sharing.
7 Question from Mr. Ferid Abdulhafiz Is the sonication power affects the extract yield or tannic acid concentration?
8 Question from Dr. Nur Atikah Binti Mohidem Very interesting topic on extraction of tannic acid using novel UAE method. We hope to have a profitable future collaboration with you on research like this. Congratulations and Thank you very much Dr. Mardawani.
 

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