Wood and Forest Technology


No. TITLE OF VIDEO PRESENTATIONS SESSIONS
1
Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching Duration on Sesbania grandiflora Pulp [WFT01]
By Miss Liew Jing Xian

Bleaching is a chemical treatment process to brighten the pulp by eliminating the lignin content and cleaning the impurities on the cellulose fibres surface. The bleached pulp can produce paper product with better capacity in receiving image from writing or painting. Chlorine based bleaching agent can brighten the pulp effectively, but it harms the environment, especially water pollution. Thus, hydrogen peroxide, a total chlorine free (TCF) bleaching agent is applied in this research in order to bleach the pulp that derived from Sesbania grandiflora. Hydrogen peroxide has strong oxidizing properties, and it is commonly used in pulp and paper industry as an effective bleaching agent. Sesbania grandiflora is being chosen as raw material due to its ideal characteristics as pulp source and native in Malaysia. This research is aimed to determine the effects of hydrogen peroxide on Sesbania grandiflora pulp and to evaluate the paper properties made from Sesbania grandiflora pulp. The research was carried under different bleaching durations, which were 20 minutes, 40 minutes and 60 minutes but with a constant temperature of 5°C and 3% concentration of hydrogen peroxide. The physical, optical and mechanical properties of Sesbania handsheet were measured according to the standard TAPPI. The overall result presented a significant effect on kappa number and handsheet brightness but a little effect on the mechanical properties. The longer bleaching duration gave the least kappa number of the Sesbania pulp, thus, improving the brightness of the Sesbania handsheet. However, it did not affect the strength properties of the handsheet. In this research, 60 minutes bleaching duration on Sesbania grandiflora pulp exhibits the best bleaching performance without compromising paper mechanical properties significantly.

[ENTER]
Liked : 9
Question(s) : 4
2
Local Wood Vinegar as Potential Vegetative Booster [WFT02]
By Dr. Boon Jia Geng

 Potential Vegetative Booster

 

The increment of awareness on food safety and environmental pollution caused by synthetic vegetative chemical agents leads the consumers and farmers looking for a safer and natural product as an alternative. Currently, the farmer in Malaysia is mainly depends on the vegetative agents imported from overseas. The potential of local vegetative agent is keen to be revealed. Wood vinegar is a pyroligneous liquid condensed from wood carbonization process. Wood vinegar is recognized as a safe and natural vegetative agents with various effect. In this research, the booster effect of wood vinegar on the growth of Brassica rapa (Choy Sum) was investigated. Wood vinegar was obtained from a local wood briquette manufacturer (Forest Bio Energy Sdn Bhd) at Jeli District, Kelantan. The crude wood vinegar was aged for 6 months and the clear wood vinegar above tar layer was collected. The physical properties of wood vinegar including pH, acidity, total polyphenol content, heavy metal content and bacteria count were analysed. Wood vinegar solution with five different dilution concentration (1:100, 1:250, 1:500, 1:750 and 1:1000) and one blank (distilled water as control) was prepared. The wood vinegar solutions were sprayed on the Brassica rapa with interval seven days for four weeks, begin from day after transplanting (DATP). Soil pH, Germination rate, leaf area index, number of leaf, height of plant, length of stem, fresh weight and length of root were examined. The physical properties analysis indicated that the wood vinegar is rich with total polyphenol content and low with heavy metal content. The vitality result indicated that wood vinegar solution able to improve the growth of Brassica rapa. However, the high concentration of wood vinegar showed an adverse effect. The high acidic condition is unfavourable for vegetation growth. The wood vinegar solution with 1:250 dilution exhibited the best performance in this study. 

[ENTER]
Liked : 10
Question(s) : 1
3
Morpho-Anatomy Features as Potential Identification Characteristics of Selected Limestone Gingers in Kelantan [WFT04]
By Miss Nor Syahaiza Bt Ahmad Zamri

MORPHO-ANATOMY FEATURES AS POTENTIAL IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED LIMESTONE GINGERS IN KELANTAN

 

Appalasamy, S.1,2*, Arumugam, N.2, Nor Syahaiza, A.Z.2, Adibah Syahirah, M.M.2, Nurkhalisah, S.2, Norfatin Fazlyn, M.D.2, Salam, M.A.3, Thirumalai, K.4, Suhana, Z.5, Subramaniam, S.6,7

 

1Institute of Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture (IFSSA), Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia

2Faculty of Earth Science, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Jeli Campus, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia

3Department of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh

4Faculty of Medicine, Quest International University Perak, 30250 Ipoh, Perak

5Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Jeli Campus, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia

6School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

7Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bayan Lepas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

*corresponding email: suganthi.a@umk.edu.my

 

Abstract

Zingiberaceae are found to be growing in limestone areas. A study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia to determine the morpho-anatomical differences between limestone ginger species. Selected non-limestone ginger species were also included in the analysis to compare and verify the spatial variation and influence on the morpho-anatomical features of the same species. Collected fresh specimens from five different areas were sliced into thin layers (leaf, root, rhizome and pseudostem parts) and stained with methylene blue. A total of 11 species were recorded in limestone and non-limestone areas. Morpho-anatomy characters of Zingiber spectabile and Alpinia javanica were compared as the species recorded at both limestone and non-limestone areas. The morphology of ginger species from different areas shows no variation. The morphological characteristics are as stated in the ginger species identification keys and pictorial books. However, the anatomical characteristics comparison reveals that there were differences in terms of size of vascular bundle, abundance of chlorophyll, leaf vein and cell wall thickness that can be used as potential identification for limestone gingers. The differences occurred due to the adaptation on the nutrient limited limestone habitat. This study proven that anatomical characteristics of gingers can be used as an attribute in plant identification characteristics.

Keywords: Zingiberaceae, Ginger, Limestone, Jeli, Dabong, Kelantan

[ENTER]
Liked : 8
Question(s) : 3
4
Development of Activated Carbon Made from Kelantan Bamboo as an Economical and Effective Adsorption Technique for Wastewater Treatment   [WFT05]
By Mr. Danial Shamzari Bin Hashim

In contemporary times, many countries are confronting the problem of water scarcity, and Malaysia makes no exception. Water crisis had stuck Malaysia for numerous times due to growing population, nonpareil water supply in catering the upsurge in demand, etc. If there is an absence of immediate sound approach in battling this problem, the water shortage crisis could be lingering. Therefore, the necessity of water reuse via appropriate wastewater treatment is one of the indispensable measures. This study proposed an economical and effective adsorption technique for treating wastewater though the conversion of local bamboo into an activated carbon material called bamboo activated carbon (BAC). To produce the BAC, bamboo samples, harvested from Kelantan were oven-dried to at most 15% moisture content. The bamboo was powdered and proceeded with four hours of carbonization and pyrolysis at a very high temperature. The output was next undergone a steaming process. To assure the quality of the produced BAC, compliance with the ASTM specification is mandatory. The inspection of the microscopic structure and crystallinity index of activated carbon was conducted using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) while the functional groups of activated carbon were determined from the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) data. Brunnauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method was implemented to determine the surface area of the BAC. The adsorption capacity of the BAC was evaluated in terms of Iodine Number. The BAC was tested using copper and zinc which are commonly known as heavy metal ions in the aqueous solution and by the Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to examine the element that still present in the solution. Both iodine and heavy metal ions tests had shown that the BAC is an effective adsorption technique for wastewater treatment, which could lead to the nation’s water security in no time. 

 

Keywords: bamboo, activated carbon, absorbent, wastewater, pyrolysis

[ENTER]
Liked : 8
Question(s) : 1
5
Proximate Properties of Pellet Material of Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia mangium [WFT16]
By Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aweng A/l Eh Rak

The purpose of the proximate analysis is to evaluate the fuel characteristics of raw materials. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the proximate properties of the mixture of Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia mangium fuel pellets. The moisture analyser, mx-50 machine was used in the identification of moisture content (MC) in the samples. Meanwhile, volatile matter (VM) was analysed based on BS EN 15148:2009 standard. Ash content (AC) was obtained using BS EN 14775:2009 standard. On the other hand, fix carbon (FC) was obtained through the summation of percentage in all three (3) different values of moisture content, ash content and volatile matter subtracted from 100%. The average percentage of MC of bottom, middle and top portion are 3.85±2.01%, 1.93±0.57%, 2.99±1.24% respectively.  Meanwhile, the average percentage of VM of the same portion is 82.88±2.16%, 83.85±3.03%, 83.22±5.83% respectively. The average percentage of AC with the same portion are  0.44±0.34%,  0.17±0.10%, 0.29±0.23% respectively. Last but not least, the average percentage of FC with the same portion are 12.94±1.19%, 14.06±2.64%, 14.62±5.63% respectively. Based on the results of proximate analysis above which are high in MV and FC and low in MC and AC contents, it can be concluded that the mixture of  L. leucocephala and A. mangium fuel pellets has a very good potential to be utilised as solid fuel. 

[ENTER]
Liked : 4
Question(s) : 1


No. TITLE OF E-POSTER PRESENTATIONS SESSIONS
1
Leucaena leucocephala Biomass Treated with Sodium Dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) as an Adsorbent for Malachite green uptake from Contaminated Water [WFT06]
By Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hazim Mohamad Amini

Dyes are significant pollutant of our clean water. Adsorption using activated carbon uses lots of energy in the production stage. Thus it is an expensive choice for contaminant clearance from wastewater. Modification of biomass particles using suitable chemical can produce adsorbent with lower cost. In this study, the Leucaena leucocephala biomass was treated with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) as an adsorbent for Malachite green uptake from contaminated water. Batch adsorption studies were done to study the effect of various parameters on the adsorption percentage of the prepared adsorbent. The results showed that the optimum values evaluated for each adsorption parameters are 20 ppm for initial adsorbate concentration, 60 minutes contact time, 30 ℃ for solution temperature, pH of 7, adsorbent particle size of 0.425 – 0.5 mm and 0.5 g/L adsorbent dosage. The results showed that SDBS treated Leucaena leucocephala has the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent for Malachite green dye from contaminated water.

[ENTER]
Liked : 0
Question(s) : 0
2
Effect of Heat and Cold Treatment of Cinnamomum porrectum Extract on Rubberwood and Oil-Palm Trunk Veneer against Fungi. [WFT08]
By Syazrol Bin Omar

This study was conducted to investigate the susceptibility of rubberwood veneers and oil palm trunk (OPT) veneers exposed to wood deteriorating fungi. Two wood rotting fungi (brown-rot and white-rot) were cultured into the veneers being treated with either heated or non-heated C. porrectum extract. The result of attacking pattern was observed by light microscope. The weight losses due the exposure were compared. Veneers treated with heated extractives tend to have lowest percentage of weight loss with 20.08% for rubberwood veneer and 39.35% for OPT veneer compare to veneers that treated with non-heated extractive with 23.11% for rubberwood and 39.85%. This study indicates that C. porrectum can be used as one of natural preservatives to control the fungal deterioration on rubberwood veneers and OPT veneers.

[ENTER]
Liked : 8
Question(s) : 1
3
Characterization of Microcrystalline Cellulose  [WFT11]
By Miss Aqilah Binti Abdul Rahim

Bamboo species has widely used in many industries nowadays. The Gigantochloa albociliata (Buluh Madu) is chosen because of the fast-growing species, cheaper and plentiful in Malaysia. Gigantochloa albociliata (Buluh Madu) has undergone a Kraft pulping process for cellulose, followed by an acidic hydrolysis process for the processing of Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). In this study, MCC made from bamboo and the characteristic of MCC are described in this study. The MCC were analysed with FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), B.E.T (Brunauer-Emmet Teller) and XRD (X-ray diffraction). The IR spectra shown the broad peak in the B-MCC and C-MCC at range 3331 cm-1 to 3341 cm-1 was appointed and presented the functional group of hydroxy compounds, H-bonded and O-H stretch in the wavenumber of single bond region (2500 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1). Then, the specific surface area of particle size for B-MCC (microcrystalline cellulose derived from bamboo) is 0.019 m2/g. while for C-MCC (commercialized microcrystalline cellulose) is 0.0018 m2/g. Lastly, the crystallite size of B-MCC and C-MCC were 0.0163 and 5.5141  . The crystallite size of B-MCC was smaller than C-MCC.

 

 

Kata kunci:  Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), FT-IR, B.E.T, X.R.D

[ENTER]
Liked : 8
Question(s) : 3
4
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 25 YEARS OLD SENTANG (AZADIRACHTA EXCELSA) PLANTED AT GURUN, KEDAH. [WFT13]
By Miss Shaharlina Bt Abd Rasid

To meet the local and international market's timber demands, Azadirachta excelsa, a native tree known as a Sentang, has been listed among the potential fast-growing species to be planted as forest plantation establishment in the mid -1990s by the Malaysian government. It is well known that understanding wood properties is crucial for the industry to use as raw material properly. Due to underrepresented and minimal available data regarding the properties of the tree, the uncertainty about the species potential has been figured out. The physical properties of the 25-year-old Sentang tree planted in Gurun, Kedah, Malaysia, are discussed in this paper. This paper analyzes the impact on moisture content, density, and shrinkage of radial growth rates from the pith to the bark at the bottom, DBH, middle, and top of the trees. For this reason, three trees were harvested and classified into slow, average, and fast-growth rates. The results were as follows. The green MC of all the categorized trees tends to decrease from the pith to the bark. However, the same tendency was not observed in the density. As predicted, the shrinkage in the tangential direction is higher than in radial and longitudinal directions. In addition, the shrinkage in the tangential direction of the fast-growth rate tree has the highest compared to the other categorized trees.

Keywords: [Azadirachta excelsa, density, moisture content, shrinkage, tree growth rates]

[ENTER]
Liked : 7
Question(s) : 3
5
Morphological study and biodegradability of PLA/PBAT thin-film reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose from bamboo  [WFT14]
By Sitti Fatimah Mhd Ramle

Nowadays, awareness on plastic pollution had increase which brings innovation on new productions to be environmentally friendly. Various polymers are been used in studies to analyse the suitability to produce thin films. In this study, the morphology and biodegradable of polylactic acid (PLA) and polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT) was reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)  of the thin film were studied. Morphological study on the thin film was carried through Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) to observe the dispersion of MCC, surface roughness and topography. Biodegradability test was carried by soil burial for 48 days and 5% of C-MCC recorded a high percentage of weight loss with 27.36% at the thickness of 0.8 while 5% of B-MCC observed to have large degradation of 21.59% at 0.4mm thickness. It is thus revealed that the study
on B-MCC, provides the scientific information for the application and implementation of B-MCC as an effective biodegradable plastics.

[ENTER]
Liked : 0
Question(s) : 0


VIDEOs AND POSTERs SESSION (ASYNCHRONOUS)

A) Bioindustrial Technology
B) Materials Science and Technology
C) Wood and Forest Technology
D) Energy Technology
E) Environmental Technology
F) Mining and Mineral Technology
G) Agricultural Technology

 

 

Contact Us

Secretariat,
International Conference on Bioengineering and Technology (IConBET2021),
Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Phone : +6011-21275007 (Ts. Dr. Sarizam Mamat) / +6014-5477331 (Dr. Norfadhilah Ibrahim)
Email : iconbet@umk.edu.my
Website : https://iconbet.umk.edu.my/