Assessment of Groundwater Quality in the Coastal Aquifer of Bachok Using Hydrochemistry
Zakiyah Ainul Kamal1, Muhammad Amin1, Hafzan Eva Mansor1, Nor Shahida Shafiee1, Aweng A/L Eh Rak1, Zahidi Hamzah2, Zameer Ahmad Shah3 and Mohammad Muqtada Ali Khan1*
1Department of Geoscience, Faculty of Earth Science, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Campus Jeli, Locked Bag No. 100, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia
2Department of Mineral & Geoscience, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
3Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, Uttar Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: In Kelantan, fresh groundwater has been reported to be one of the major sources of water supply in the state. It is widely adopted and utilized by various users to meet their needs especially in domestic, irrigation and industrial sectors. The overwhelming use and over abstraction causing the imbalance of groundwater which results in the depletion of groundwater level. Over time, this trend will cause the negative impact on the groundwater quality for both short and long term. The problem of groundwater quality are not only related to man-made but also natural pollution. To understand this phenomenon hydrochemical studies has been carried out on groundwater samples along the coastal aquifers of Bachok. The physical-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, salinity and turbidity) have been tested in all groundwater samples to help in the assessment of groundwater quality. In addition, hydrochemical analysis which involved chloride, fluoride, nitrate, sulphate, bicarbonate, magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, iron and manganese has been done. The results are assessed and compared with guidelines drinking-water quality from World Health Organization (WHO). Based on the findings obtained from this study, all groundwater samples are classified as fresh water and have a good quality of water (within permissible limit). Except for one sample which is slightly saline in nature probably because of seawater intrusion.
Keywords: Hydrochemical analysis, groundwater, Bachok, Kelantan