Materials Science and Technology


No. TITLE OF VIDEO PRESENTATIONS SESSIONS
1
Graphene Oxide Silver Alginate and Graphene Oxide Silver Cellulose Nanofibril Nanocomposite: Comparison of Antibacterial Activity [MST10]
By Miss Farah Amanina Binti Mohd Zin

Graphene Oxide Silver nanocomposite (GOAg) with the incorporation of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) and Alginate (Alginate) was successfully prepared using a simple and straightforward method and their antimicrobial activity were investigated. This work aims to compare the antimicrobial activity between GO, GOAg, GOAg/CNF, and GOAg/Alg. The structure, characteristics, and morphology of the nanocomposite were studied by using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), x-ray-diffraction ( XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and antibacterial study were performed using disk diffusion methods. The results reveal that E.Coli were more susceptible against GOAg/Alg. Meanwhile, S.Aureus were more susceptible against GOAg/CNF where the maximum inhibition zone recorded are. 14.0 ± 0.70 mm and 12.8 ± 1.0 mm respectively. The incorporation of GOAg with CNF in E.Coli and S.Aureus increases the inhibition zone to 8% and 8.4% compared to GOAg alone. Meanwhile, GOAg/Alg only increases the inhibition zone for E.Coli by 12% and no improvement of inhibition reading for S.Aureus. In conclusion, the incorporation of GOAg with CNF and Alg increases the antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposite compared to GOAg alone. 

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Liked : 11
Question(s) : 3
2
Morphology characterization of waste banana peel thin films polymer. [MST11]
By Mrs. Nik Alnur Auli Nik Yusuf

In the present work, the conversion of waste banana peels fiber (WBP) as a raw material into the biopolymer film intended to replace synthetic plastics was studied. Bio-films from waste banana peel will be investigating the morphology of films by the effects of glycerol content. Films composite were produced by mixing of banana peel fiber in 150ml of distilled water for one hour at 80oC. Then it were blended by using blender and glycerol added with different  glycerol content (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 grams) . The solution was premixed and then heated from room temperature to 80oC, where it was maintained for 1 h while being constantly mixing. The solution was then allowed to cool at 40 oC, before ready to casting into aluminium mold. The mixed suspensions were immediately poured onto a aluminium-nylon mesh mold to form a composite thin film. The films were then pressed with heat press machine at 120oC for 5 minutes. The composites will dry for 24 h in an ambient room temperature in dessicator at about 37 oC until they reached a constant weight. The thickness of the films was controlled by the addition of the same weight of suspension into a dish of same size. The finial thickness of the film was about 0.20 mm.  The micrograph of films with different glycerol content was examine by using by scanning electron micrograph (SEM).This figures showed the surface morphology of the banana peel powder where it revealed that the peels have an irregular and rough surface.The result show that the morphology of films were influenced by different grams of glycerol content (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 grams) used. For thin films of 10grams of glycerol (G1) shows less coarse granules were observed.

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Liked : 6
Question(s) : 3
3
Development of Piper Betle Nanoemulgel Formulation For Effective Droplet Size Reduction And Excellent Stability  [MST17]
By Miss Teo Chai Ting

The goal of this research is to formulate and evaluate the current potential of the nanoemulgel that incorporate the natural plant essential oil as central ingredient for effective topical delivery system.  Plant derived nanoemulgel is becoming the increasing trend because of their few unique characteristics such as non-toxic, better spreadability and non-greasy. In general, nanoemulgel comprises of two different manners which are the nanoemulsion containing the active ingredient and the gel base system that embody the nanoemulsion. In this research, Piper betle essential oil was used as the active element in the formulation and steam distillation was used to extract the essential oil. Nanoemulsion consists of two immiscible phases; oil and water phases. Carbopol 940 is employed as gelling agent to increase the viscosity of the nanoemulgel formulation. The functional group of the Piper betle essential oil is analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). In this research, different ratio of the nanoemulsion and nanoemulgel were formulated and their physical appearance, viscosity and stability were observed. The droplet size and Poly Dispersed Index (PDI) of samples formulations were also determined by using dynamic light scattering. In short, Piper betle nanoemulgel presented as a potential and promising manner for topical delivery system in the future.

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Liked : 9
Question(s) : 1
4
Weldability of Dissimilar Materials (AA5052 Aluminium Alloy - Galvannealed High Strength Steel) Joints by Direct Current Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding [MST48]
By Seong Min Hong

Pulsed current gas metal arc welding (GMA), compared to other welding process, is known as high flexibility for joining of intricate shapes at high joining speed with fairly controlled rate of spray-type metal transfer at the relatively reduced value of average heat input than that of a conventional GMAW. This study is intended to clarify the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the lap joints by direct current pulsed (DC) GMA joining process to dissimilar materials; AA5052 aluminum alloy and 590 MPa galvannealed (GA) high strength steel. The effect of process parameters, thermophysical properties of base matals on the bead profile, and joint strength were investigated to optimize the process parameters. In order to the investigation of metallurgical phenomena on dissimilar materials joints, scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA) were employed to characterize the joint interface. As a result, 88.4 J/mm of heat input induced the the maximum tensile-shear strength shwoing the longest wet length with 3.29 μm Fe-Al IMC layer formation.

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Liked : 5
Question(s) : 6
5
Synthesis of bismuth ferrite-activated carbon (BFO-AC) nanoparticles and their characterization  [MST55]
By Miss Nur Atiqah Binti Daub

Bismuth Ferrite-Activated Carbon (BFO-AC) nanocomposite was synthesized by ultrasonication method. Different ratios of activated carbon  (AC) have been employed in the synthesized of BFO-AC nanocomposite. The as-prepared BFO-AC were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflection spectrum (DRS) and field emission scanning emerging microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis. For XRD analysis, all samples show sharp and intense diffraction peaks indicating the high crystallinity of BFO-AC. The absorption edge of all the prepared samples were found within visible light range (400-700 nm). Bismuth ferrite-to-activated carbon's ratio of 1:1.5 was found to have lower band gap of 1.86 eV compared to other ratios, which promoted an enhancement in absorption of visible light. FE-SEM analysis showed the BFO nanoparticles lie on the surface of AC. It was observed that different loading ratios of AC have shown a significant influence on the properties of BFO photocatalyst. Thus, it is essential to develop a remarkable novel of BFO-AC nanocomposite to provide more efficient photocatalyst to be activated under visible light region in photocatalytic activity. 

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Question(s) : 3
6
UV-Vis analysis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles and its potential biological activity.  [MST56]
By Dr. Ropisah Binti Me

The biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using natural resources gained increased attention due to a growing need to improve environmentally benign material synthesis technologies. The approach using plant extracts for the synthesis of AgNPs offers significant advantages including less toxicity, eco-friendliness, cost-effective and suitable for biomedical application. Numerous benefits of silver nanoparticles such as biosensor, food packaging, antibacterial coating, topical ointment, antibacterial agent, anticancer agent and also found useful in drug delivery system. Therefore, this study is aimed to synthesized silver nanoparticles using Eleusine indica leaves. In this study, plant-mediated silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using Eleusine indica leaves extract (Sambau extract) through biomimetic method with several parameters such as concentration, pH, time and temperature. A methanol extract of Eleusine indica was treated with 1 mM of silver nitrate in acidic condition for 24 hours at room temperature. The sample was characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The formation of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis absorption peak at range 400 – 425 nm and TEM analysis that reveal the size of nanoparticles at range 50 – 100 nm. Further, the cytotoxicity and biological activity of the synthesized plant-mediated AgNPs will be done to investigate its potential biological properties.

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Liked : 6
Question(s) : 4
7
The Influence Of Conventional Heating Method On Physicochemical Properties Of Malaysian Stingless Bee Honey [MST68]
By Assoc. Prof. Dr. Azilah Binti Ajit@abd Aziz

The application of conventional heating in commercial honey is necessary to reduce viscosity for quick handling before packaging. However, it can be damaging especially to the physicochemical and nutritional properties of honey if it was subjected to excessive temperature. Thus, this present research aimed to study the effect of conventional heating method towards physicochemical properties of Malaysian stingless bee honey where pH, moisture content, Hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity and sugar profile were evaluated. The stingless bee honey samples from two main species in Malaysia namely, Heterotrigona Itama and Geniotrigona Itama and two commercially obtained stingless bee honey were heated at 40 ℃, 50 ℃, 63 ℃ and 90 ℃ for 30 min in water bath. The analyses showed that all honey samples pH was reduced significantly at 90 ℃ and the moisture content was effectively reduced by 20% which is favorable to avoid fermentation and slowing crystallization in honey. Besides that, the sugars values also slightly decreased with increasing temperature. Both commercial honey has high HMF (84.0 – 159.4 mg/kg) and low diastase number (3.17-3.58 DN) prior to heating which implying that these honey has been exposed to high temperature before packaging. After heat was applied, HMF content increased (40.3 to 216.8 mg/kg) while diastase activity (1.47 to 5.21 DN) decreased gradually indicating both parameters are very sensitive to heat. In conclusion, the ideal temperature for heating using conventional method should be no more than 90 ℃ so that the quality of honey can still be preserved. 

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Liked : 7
Question(s) : 4
8
Electrodeposition of AuPt Nanoparticles for Ethanol Electrooxidation Application [MST73]
By Dr. Setia Budi

Gold-based bimetallic nanoparticles possess promising application for electrooxidation reaction due to its high catalytic activity. In this work, Au and bimetallic AuPt nanoparticles for ethanol electrooxidation application were synthesized using electrodeposition technique on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate. Based on the electrochemical impedance measurements, bimetallic AuPt exhibits a lower resistance charge transfer (Rct) compared to that of single metal Au particles. The cyclic voltammetry studies show that bimetallic AuPt nanoparticles exhibit higher oxidation current, and ratio of forward and backward current (If/Ib) compared to those of Au. This result indicates that the presence of Pt succesfully increased the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles for ethanol electrooxidation reaction.

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Liked : 6
Question(s) : 5


No. TITLE OF E-POSTER PRESENTATIONS SESSIONS
1
Effect of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) on Thermal Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/CNC Biocomposites [MST01]
By Dr. Nor Hakimin Bin Abdullah

In this study, cellulose nanocrystal's effect on the thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/ cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) biocomposite was studied. Three different CNC concentrations (3 wt%, 6 wt%, and 9%) were added to a fixed amount of PVA solution, and PVA/CNC thin films were prepared by solution casting method. The obtained CNC and PVA/CNC biocomposites were characterized using the Tyndall effect and Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). PVA/CNC biocomposites' thermal properties were studied using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The Tyndall effect of CNC showed the laser light beam was observable through the different CNC dispersion concentration while FTIR-ATR exhibited several prominent peaks related to CNC, PVA, and PVA/CNC biocomposite. TGA results indicated that different amounts of char residue left in the crucible and DSC proved that the heat release at a different temperature depending on the composition CNC in the PVA/CNC biocomposite thin film.

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Liked : 11
Question(s) : 1
2
Influence of Microwave Irradiation Time of Sintering Process on the Dielectric Properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 using Enhanced Microwave Susceptor Crucible [MST02]
By Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azwadi Bin Sulaiman

CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) is an exciting electroceramic material due to a very high dielectric constant, up to 105. This material is a high potential candidate in miniaturizing microelectronic devices. In this study, CCTO was synthesized using an enhanced microwave process to improve the dielectric properties in the microelectronic industry. An enhanced silicon carbide (SiC)-based susceptor was utilized to optimize the microwave radiation temperature towards the CCTO sample. The CCTO samples were prepared using a solid-state reaction route. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that the phase formation of cubic perovskite CCTO is successfully produced after calcination. The calcination process of CCTO powder was conducted conventionally in a furnace at 900°C for 12 hours. The CCTO cylindrical pellets were then sintered using an enhanced microwave at the frequency of 2.45GHz. The sintering process was tested in five different time duration, which was at 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, and 5 hours. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted at 2.5V and 3V with 1Hz to 10MHz of frequency shows the dielectric behaviour performance of the sample concerning sintering time. The result reveals that the dielectric constant was best produced in 1 to 3 hours of sintering time as, beyond the duration, the dielectric behaviour shows discontinuity. The dielectric loss is also reasonably low between the time. It is then proven that microwave sintering is proven in completing the sintering process in 3 hours is sufficient to improve the dielectric properties of the CCTO by optimizing the synthesis duration of the sample. 

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Liked : 9
Question(s) : 4
3
Preparation and Optimization of Antibacterial Activity of Graphene Oxide Silver nanocomposite [MST03]
By Dr. An'amt Mohamed Noor

A simple approach for the synthesis of graphene oxide silver alginate film has been developed for the antibacterial performance. Graphene oxide (GO) was used as a supporting material towards formation of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) by a rapid microwave irradiation on mixture of GO and silver complexes and sodium alginate to form a film. The obtained film were characterized by using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Xray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the formation of GOAgAlginate. The surface morphological studies for the nanocomposite was done by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanometer-sized AgNPs with spherical-shape structure loaded on the GO Alginate layer showed a good antibacterial towards E.Coli and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

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Liked : 8
Question(s) : 3
4
Optimization of Wood Saw Dust as Pore Forming Agent for Porous Ceramic using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Statistical Design [MST04]
By Ts. Dr. Teo Pao Ter

Wood sawdust has fine and uniform particle size distribution as well as lower ignition point, hence suitable as pore forming agent for porous ceramic. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) statistical design, i.e. Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to optimize the weight percentage (wt.%) of wood sawdust added and sintering temperature for the porous ceramic. The statistical analysis included model adequacy checking, analysis of variance (ANOVA), main effects and interaction plot and regression model. The factors (experimental parameters) involved were wt.% of wood sawdust added and sintering temperature. Meanwhile, the responses (final properties of ceramics) investigated were water absorption, apparent porosity and bulk density. Upon statistical analysis, the wt.% of sawdust added and sintering temperature are proven to significantly influence final properties of the porous ceramic. Optimized properties (minimum water absorption, apparent porosity and maximum bulk density) of the porous ceramic were attained at 25 wt.% of sawdust added and sintering temperature of 1000 °C. 

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Liked : 12
Question(s) : 4
5
Thermal Studies of Kenaf Fibre Mat/Cellulose Nano Crystal/Graphene Nano Platelets reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin Biocomposites. [MST05]
By Miss Nurul Ainnabilah Binti Mohd Rosdi

Thermal properties of new biocomposites prepared from unsaturated polyester resin matrix reinforced with kenaf fibre and two nanofillers were studied. Before fabricating the specimen all the reinforcement material were oven dried at 105ᵒC. Two kind of nanofillers that were used is cellulose nano crystals (CNC) and graphene nano platelets (GNP) in the amount of 0-3 wt %. The nanofillers is then mixed homogenously with the unsaturated polyester resin before catalyzed with methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) initiator and promoted by cobalt naphthenate accelerator and then were poured into the mould that have kenaf fibre mat. The KFM-UPE biocomposites with various GNP/CNC hybrid ratio were then fabricated by hot press moulding at 120 oC. The thermal behaviour of the biocomposite was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods. The obtained results revealed that the presence of both GNP and CNC nanofillers has improved the thermal stability of KFM-UPE biocomposites at high temperature and effectively increase the char residue formation. In addition, the TGA and DSC analysis also showed the enhancement of glass transition temperature (Tg) value and major degradation temperature for hybrid CNC/GNP reinforced UPE biocomposites as compared to neat UPE and KFM-UPE composites.


Keywords: nanofillers hybrid, thermal properties, cellulose nano crystals, graphene, kenaf fibre, unsaturated polyester resin.

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Question(s) : 5
6
Effect of Chemical Treatment on Physical Properties of Sugarcane Bagasse reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Biocomposites [MST06]
By Dr. Mohamad Bashree Bin Abu Bakar

The purpose of this research is to study the physical, mechanical and morphology
of sugarcane bagasse (SGB) reinforced unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) composites by
utilizing a different percentage of fiber contents and different chemical treatments on fibers.
Sugarcane bagasse reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites have been prepared using the compression molding technique. To enhance better adhesion between fiber and matrix, the SGB was chemically treated with alkaline (NaOH) solution and a silane solution for 2 hours. Physical properties such as water absorption and thickness swelling were carried out by soaking samples in water for designated hours and the density of the samples was also
calculated.  Overall, both water absorption and thickness swelling results showed that NST 1 with less fibre content and treated with NaOH + silane has a lower value compared to other fibre loading composites.

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Liked : 9
Question(s) : 4
7
Thermal Properties of Modified Nonstoichiometric Ca1+xCu3Ti4-xO12-2x (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) Ceramic Materials in Nitrogen and Oxygen Environment [MST08]
By Miss Wan Nor Dini Bt Wan Nor Azli Jasmi

The nominal stoichiometric CaCu3Ti4O12 were modified into nonstoichiometric Ca(1+x)Cu3Ti(4-x)O12-2x (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10), were synthesised by using conventional solid state method. The ceramic samples were mixed in acetone media for an hour and dried in the oven at 100 °C for 24 hours. The thermal properties of the prepared samples were analyzed by using Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in 60ml/min nitrogen atmospheric gas and following by oxygen rich environment at heating rate 10 °C min-1. The thermal behavior of the samples were investigated as a function of measured Ca and Ti content. The results showed that the mass loss of the samples were drastically dropped (6.68% - 7.45%) at temperature around 714 °C to 785 °C at first stage, then decreased moderately (2.65% - 3.15%) at temperature around 890 °C to 960 °C for the second stage. This is due to the oxygen absorption decreased and the reduction of the single phase of CCTO. Meanwhile, DSC pattern showed 2 endothermic peaks at ~765 °C and at ~ 936 °C which related to melting point and crystalline phase of the sample changes.   

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Liked : 8
Question(s) : 5
8
Treatment of Polymedosa Expansa by using Catalytic Chelation Technique [MST13]
By Dr. Wan Nazwanie

The accumulation of heavy metal in polymedosa expansa increased due to industrial activities. This study determines the efficiency of chelation method in heavy metal removal. The parameter of types and concentration of chelating agents, time and temperature is altered accordingly to investigate the optimum condition in this study. The initial concentration of heavy metals for Ni, Cd and Cu were 5.128 μg/g, 0.929 μg/g and 2.462 μg/g. Treating the P.expansa with 200 ppm of potassium acetate for one hour at 32.50±0.50 °C and the heavy metals decrease 20.18 %, 25.30 % and 75.22 % respectively after chelation treatment. Then, through catalytic chelation technique the heavy metals decrease 68.82 %, 65.59 % and 78.09 % respectively.

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Liked : 2
Question(s) : 1
9
Effect of Styrene Butadiene Rubber on Processing Torque and Morphological Properties of Kenaf Core Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites [MST14]
By Miss Siti Hajar Binti Mohd

Natural fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites are growing attention among researchers due to their low cost, renewable and low density. In this research, kenaf core fibre (KCF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) in the presence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) was melted blending with PP using Brabender internal mixer at 170℃ and 60 rpm rotor speed.. Processing torque of the melt blending is one of the processing behavior which was recorded during the mixing processing of the samples by using Brabender internal mixer application. The composites then fabricated using compression molding to form a sheet of PP and KCF reinforced PP (KCFPP) composites. Pure polypropylene (PP) matrix was used to serve as control whilst SBR was functionalized as an impact modifier to improve the toughness properties of PP. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to characterize the fracture surface of the composites after mechanical failure. The morphological studies proved that the presence of matrix fibrillation contributed to increasing of toughness properties of KCFPP composites, but the existence of agglomeration and non-dispersed KCF could be related with data obtained from processing torque of the melt blending.

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Liked : 8
Question(s) : 2
10
Effect of The Two-Step Sintering to The Phase Structure, Microstructure and Dielectric Properties of Undoped K0.5Na0.5NbO3-Based Lead Free Ceramics [MST24]
By Mr. Muhammad Qusyairie Bin Saari

The two-step sintering with low temperature in synthesizing a homogeneous microstructure in Potassium Sodium Niobate (K0.5N0.5Nb3 @ KNN) piezoceramic without abnormal grain growth is studied. The KNN ceramics prepared by Conventional Sintering at temperatures up to 1120 ˚C resulted in inhomogeneous microstructures with a bimodal grain size distribution. In contrast, the two-step sintering (1120˚C for 10 minutes in the first step and 1070 ˚C for 10 hours in the second step) resulted in a homogeneous microstructure with a grain size of a few micro-meters. The samples prepared by two-step sintering had high dielectric properties comparable to samples prepared by conventional sintering for Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT). KNN bulk ceramic with homogeneous microstructures were successfully synthesized by a two-step sintering method and their dielectric properties were measured. 

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Question(s) : 1
11
Clay Characterizations in Kampung Kor and Kampung Seribong, Kota Bharu by Using Slip Casting [MST25]
By Mrs. Siti Mariam Bt Mat Nor

The areas involved in this research are Kampung Kor and Kampung Seribong, Kota Bharu, Kelantan which is 15 km apart. The clay samples were collected in the same river bank but at different location. The aim of this study is to characterize and compare the quality and strength of the clay soil, since the color of these two clay were different. In this experiment, clay samples were prepared through slip casting method and fired at 900 °C, 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C for 8 hours. Physical and mechanical testing were conducted to determine the properties of the clay. The results show that the clays were not only different in color intensity but also the strength and mineral percentages, even though the clay samples were collected at the same river. The characteristic of clay from Kampung Kor has whitish-grey colour; smooth finishing surface; and higher Modulus of Rupture (MOR) with 71183.67 N/mm2, thus it is suitable for producing tiles, sewer pipes and flower pot products. While the clay from Kampung Seribong has brownish-grey colour and gritty textured surface and possible to be produced as pottery products and clay-based souvenirs. Moreover, it has lower MOR with 37626.26 N/mm2 than the clay in Kampung Kor. Thus, the different location of the clay sample contributed to the physical and mechanical properties of the clay.

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Question(s) : 1
12
Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) Contents Influence the Properties of Mambong Clay [MST27]
By Miss Nurul Ainon Binti Bakar

Nurul Ainon Bakar1, Siti Mariam Mat Nor1, Julie Juliewatty Mohamed1*, Nik Maheran Nik Muhammad2, Akhmad Herman Yuwono3, Mohd Fariz bin Ab Rahman4

1 Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Jeli, Beg Berkunci No. 100, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan

2 Faculty Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Pengkalan Chepa, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan

3 Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok 16r24 West Java-Indonesia

4 The Laryngael Mask Company (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. Lot No. 19, and No. 1920 Industrial Zone Phase 1, Kulim Hi Tech Park, 09000 Kedah

*Corresponding author email: juliewatty.m@umk.edu.my

 

Abstract

Traditional Mambong pottery was created by the raw Mambong clay itself with hand building and throwing methods. However, an experiment was conducted to study the influences on properties of Mambong clay with the various amount of CaCO3 as an additive. The CaCO3 content has been increased by 5, 10 and 15 wt% and compared to the pure Mambong clay to identify the changes occurred. Slip casting method was used to form the samples as a modern method. Then, the samples were dried and burnt at 900 °C for 8 hours. Several analysis tests were conducted including shrinkage, density and porosity tests as well as samples’ strength. This research was compared with the previous research with different firing durations. The results showed that the addition of 10 wt% CaCO3 into Mambong clay is the best sample for both researches. However, the longer firing duration gave the higher strength as the result.

Keywords: Mambong, CaCO3, clay, properties, additive, firing duration

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13
Effect of kaolin-alumina ratio on physical and structural properties of ceramic porcelain [MST31]
By Dr. Norfadhilah Ibrahim

Ceramic porcelain was prepared by sintering process at temperature of 850 °C, using minerals such as kaolin (Al2H4O9Si2) and feldspar (Na2OAl2O3·6SiO2) as main raw materials with addition of alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2). This study was focus on the effect of kaolin addition and alumina reduction on the physical and structural properties of ceramic porcelain. Fixed value of feldspar and silica which are 20 wt% and 10 wt% respectively was mixed with x wt% of kaolin and 70-x wt% of alumina (with x= 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50). The composition was then mixed and sintered at 850 °C for 4 hours. Characterization were done to observe the properties of ceramic porcelain samples through X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), density, water absorption and firing shrinkage. XRD results show that the amount of corundum as main phase has increased with the increasing amount of kaolin and decreasing amount of alumina. XRF results show the percentage of elements presence in the raw materials. Density of the samples show decreasing values with the increasing amount of kaolin and decreasing amount of alumina. Both water absorption and firing shrinkage results show increasing values with increasing amount of kaolin and decreasing amount of alumina. Result obtained shows strong evidence that proved the addition of kaolin and reduction of alumina give significant effect on the physical and structural properties of ceramic porcelain.

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14
Optimisation of Vulcanisation System on the Rheological and Thermal Properties of ENR-50 filled CCTO Composite  [MST32]
By Miss Syifa' Binti Muhamad Sharifuddin

The vulcanisation system of conventional (CV), semi-efficient (SEV) and efficient (EV) were used to investigate the rheology and thermal properties of ENR-50 filled CCTO composite. The composites were successfully fabricated via the melt mixing method in an internal mixer at 60℃ and 60 rpm rotor speed for 10 min. Then, the rubber-filler interaction and rheology properties of the composites were investigated using a rubber processing analyser (RPA) before the compounding process occurs at 160℃. As a result, the CV system expresses an excellent rubber-filler interaction. The observation for the thermal degradation showed that the EV system has the most outstanding thermal stability due to the monosulphidic bond in the network structure. The degradation starts at 85℃ and 260℃ for EV and EV-C, respectively.  

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Question(s) : 2
15
Absorption of 131I Using Oil Palm Activated Carbon for Clinical Nuclear Waste Management [MST35]
By Dr. Mohammad Khairul Azhar Abdul Abdul Razab

Nuclear Medicine is one of the facilities that provide the diagnostic and treatment services to patients where usually used the radioactive material such as and to treat the disease. For treatment of thyroid disease, it done with the administration of radioactive  to patient. When the administrated radioactive material occurred, the risk of spillage is high.  Hence, the proper and safe contamination management of radioactive materials is important component of radiation protection in hospital. Thus, this study is purposed a new technique for radioactive contamination management by using palm kernel activated carbon. Sample of the pure 131I from the laboratory will be mixed with the palm kernel activated carbon with varies of concentration. The mixture that form will be filter using filter paper. After waited for 15 minutes, the sediment on the filter paper and the water residue will be form efficiency. The radioactivity of the sediment and water residue for varies concentration will be measured using dose calibrator. The measurement will be repeated at fourth, eighth, twelfth and sixteenth day. After that, the mixture of maximum concentration palm kernel will be taken and scan using SEM & EDX to see the morphology image and the element that found in sample. The radioactivity of water residue and sediment decreases along the time exponentially shows the agglomeration and solidification process is occurred. Theoretically, the higher the concentration of the mixture occur, more agglomeration are occurred. However, some of the concentration of mixture are higher activity and lower for other at initial interactions. It is due to the agglomeration and solidification that occur in the both concentrations are lower than others concentration. Besides, the images from SEM shows the agglomerated and pore structure while the EDX analysis show the element that found in the samples. Palm kernel activated carbon is useful for all adsorption and neutralize the number of radiation where able to adsorb and evaporate the    from the laboratory. The radioactivity of sediment and water residue on sixteen day coincided to hypothesis and provided result. The image from the SEM and EDX analysis that show the morphology structure and the element that found in sample is one of the positively upcoming for the radioactivity contamination management

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16
EXTRACTION OF IODINE-131 FROM RADIOACTIVE SPILLAGE USING COCONUT SHELL ACTIVATED CARBON IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE [MST36]
By Mr. Syabil Irfan Shukri

Coconut shell is one of the agricultural by-products that have a lot of interest and uses such as it can act as biosorbents material. This study was carried out to examine the ability of adsorbents coconut shell activated carbon (AC) to extract the Iodine-131 from the radioactive spillage in nuclear medicine. From the literature review, the coconut shell was proven can be one of the precursors in activated carbon production. Then, the activated carbon also a common product that uses in many process applications including water purification, decolorization, deodorization and aroma removal. Hence, coconut shell AC was also effective and efficient adsorbent for the extraction of the Iodine-131 from the radioactive spillage. The extraction of the Iodine-131 radionuclides was conducted in a batch experiment to investigate the relationship between the concentrations of the coconut shell AC and the kinetic radioactivity of iodine 131 after extraction. The concentrations of coconut shell AC that has been used were 50 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml, 150 mg/ml, 200 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml, 300 mg/ml, and 350 mg/ml. This experiment also was conducted to determine the surface morphology and element analysis of the coconut shell AC by using the FESEM and EDX. Based on the result of this experiment, there is a significant relationship between the concentrations of the coconut shell activated carbon and the kinetic radioactivity of iodine 131 after extraction. Besides, the absorption rate of the coconut shell AC also can be determined and it stated that the absorption capabilities of coconut shell AC increase if the concentration of coconut shell AC increases. For the surface morphology, the coconut shell AC has the characteristics that each absorbent material needed such as the highly pores and high total surface area. Lastly for the element analysis, there was proof that the Iodine-131 has been extracted by the coconut shell AC which is the present of the Sodium (Na) element. 

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17
Physical, Microstructure Enhancement of K0.5Na0.5NbO3-Based Lead Free Ceramics Prepared Via Two Step Sintering [MST37]
By Mr. Muhammad Qusyairie Bin Saari

Electroceramic material of K0.5Na0.5NbO3-based lead free ceramics have a high potential application to be used as sensor, actuators and transducer. To realize the potential of K0.5Na0.5NbO3, the material must exhibit a high density with homogenous grain size. In this work, the Two Step Sintering was used to enhance the density and microstructure of the K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramic to produce better densification. The microstructure of the upper surface and cross section of KNN pellet as a function of the different sintering condition are systematically studied using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The calcined powder was pressed into pellet using hydraulic hand press with a pressure of 0.3 tons for 1 min. The KNN pellet than were sent to sinter through Conventional Sintering and Two Step Sintering. In the Two Step Sintering, the first step was sintered at 1120 ˚C for 10 minutes of soaking time and the second step were sintered at 1070 ˚C for 10 hours of soaking time. The surface of the sintered specimens under investigation are well polished and thermally etched below the sintering temperature. Evident from the microstructure reveal a highly dense of spherical, cubic and rounded shape of grains were received better compactness for samples sintered via Two Step Sintering compared with Conventional Sintering that have a large pore between the grain. The sample sintered through Two Step Sintering showed the highest density (4.244536 g/cm3) compared to the sample sintered through Conventional Sintering (4.117893 g/cm3). 

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18
 Specific Heat and Enthalpy of Crystallization CaCu3 + xTi4O12 + x In TGA/DSC Isothermal oxidation at 1000 °C   [MST39]
By Mr. Noruzaman Daud

Investigation of CCTO perovskite ceramics are widely done because of huge dielectric constant and can be promising for various applications. In this paper, we have studied the thermodynamic and decomposition of CCTO precursor by using isothermal simultaneous TGA DSC experiment at 1000 °C using oxygen gases. The isothermal treatment for crystallization of CaCu3+xTi4O12+x chemical formula excess of Cu oxide by x=0.0, 0.02, 0.08, and 0.1 batches are able to detect their specific heat capacity and enthalpy changes different. This information is useful for manufacturing quality assurance determination. The Cp different from the optimum point of crystallization and fusion is decreased with higher x, the sample prepared with stoichiometry x = 0.0 are 13.06 J/g °C. While the smaller Cp different for x=0.1 with 9.97 J/g °C. The calculated enthalpy of crystallization is higher for sample 0.0 with ΔHCrys = 238.16 J/g and the lowest for x = 0.1 with 142.50 J/g. XRD patterns after oxidation indicate the formation of perovskite CCTO structure with reducing the intensity of lattice parameters due to present more Cu cation in the system.

 

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19
Synthesis and Characterization of Ca-Less CCTO Dielectric Electro-ceramic Materials [MST46]
By Miss Wan Nor Dini Bt Wan Nor Azli Jasmi

The effect of Ca-less content in CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) properties were studied. The CCTO ceramic were prepared by using solid state method with stoichiometric formula Ca1-xCu3Ti4O12-3x. The Ca content were decreased with five different concentrations which are x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10 respectively. The XRD results shows single phase formation for all sintered CCTO. Apart from that, SEM micrograph for the compacted pellets show approximately the same size for all samples. The dielectric behavior of CCTO was observed in a frequency range of 1 Hz - 10 MHz. The optimum dielectric constant was obtained at x = 0.10 with highest εº (5.5 x 103) and lowest dielectric loss (tan σ) with value 0.5. This could be related to the less Ca content in CCTO electroceramic.    

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20
Nickel Doped Calcium Heterogeneous Catalyst for Extraction of Naphthenic Acid from Crude Petroleum Oil [MST50]
By Dr. Norshahidatul Akmar Mohd Shohaimi

The utilization of homogenous catalyst in the removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) had resulted in the emulsion problem in the reaction which will limit the percentage of total acid number (TAN) reduction. The emulsion formed will affect the quality of oil produced which will lower the price of the crude oil. In this study, the potential of the heterogeneous catalyst of Ni-doped Ca(10:90)/Al2O3 was studied for the catalytic extraction reaction in order to lower the Total Acid Number (TAN) in the crude oil to lower than 1.00 mgKOHg-1 utilizing 2-methylimidazole with the aid of Ni/Ca(10:90)/Al2O3 catalysts. The catalyst was supported on the alumina through Incipient Wetness Impregnation (IWI) methods and calcined at calcination temperatures of 800, 900, and 1000°C. Ni/Ca(10:90)/Al2O3 catalyst was characterized by using Thermogravimetry Analysis-Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to study the physicochemical properties of the catalyst. The results show that Ni/Ca(10:90)/Al2O3 catalyst successfully reduced the number of acids in crude oil to lower than 1.00 mgKOHg-1. Ni/Ca(10:90)/Al2O3 catalyst reduced TAN of crude oil from original TAN of 4.22 mgKOHg-1 to 0.65 mgKOHg-1 at 1000°C calcination temperature and catalyst loading of 7 beads (0.39%). XRD results proposed Al2O3 face-centered cubic (fcc) as an active site for Ni/Ca(10:90)/Al2O3 catalyst even though the surface area, average pore volume, and pore diameter were lower at calcination temperature at 1000°C. Stretching of N-H imidazole from 2-methylimidazole, C-H stretching from the NA species, and pure metal oxides (M=O) stretching modes were detected on Ni/Ca(10:90)/Al2O3 catalyst at a wavelength of 1455.96, 2952.2 to 2852.61 and 566.12 cm-1 respectively by FTIR analysis. FTIR result for spent catalyst after catalytic extraction process indicates that there were impurities adsorbed on the catalyst surface after the second cycle of reaction.

Keyword: crude oil, doping, extraction, heterogeneous catalyst, naphthenic acid

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21
Characterization of Polymer Inclusion Membranes (PIMs) containing Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate carrier for Zinc (II) Ions Removal [MST52]
By Miss Nadia Aqilah Binti Khalid

Transportation using polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) is one of the selective and effective measures that can be used for heavy metal ion removal. This study was performed to investigate the characteristics of fabricated PIMs by varying different composition of liquid extracting agent, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, B2EHP carrier for improving zinc (II) ions removal from aqueous solution. The fabricated PIMs were characterized with respect to their surface morphology, surface chemistry, hydrophilicity and ion exchange capacity (IEC) using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and goniometer, respectively. The performance of the fabricated PIMs was evaluated based on the Zn (II) ions removal at different composition of B2EHP. The experimental results show that the R5 membrane contains 30% of B2EHP gave the highest IEC value of 0.746 mq/g with contact angle value of 50.4o and thus, provided a highest removal of zinc (II) ion which was above 99%. This study proved that the B2EHP carrier improve the microstructure of the fabricated PIMs and provide an excellent ion carrier for Zn (II) ions removal.

 

 

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22
Finite Element Analysis using SolidWork Software on Innovative Anti-Animal Trash Bin [MST59]
By Miss Nur Aina Riza Binti Zahrin

The conflict between humans and long-tailed macaques still continues to this day. This is due to the increasing of human population that has led to the destruction of the natural habitat of long-tailed macaques for development and agricultural activities. Apart from that, feeding by humans to long-tailed macaques is also one of the factors that cause this conflict. As such, trash bins found in areas close to forest edges, residential areas and recreational areas are often targeted by long-tailed macaques in search for food. So with that, an anti-animal trash bin has been designed to solve this problem. This anti-animal trash bin has been specially designed using an opening and locking mechanism that prevents long-tailed macaques from being able to open the bin. However, there are a few disadvantages in terms of the material of the bin. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to test several types of advanced materials to increase the strength of bin materials by using SolidWorks software.

23
Antifouling Properties of Ionic Ultrafiltration Polyethersulfone (PES) Membrane for Humic Acid (HA) Removal [MST60]
By Miss Amalin Sofia Binti Che Miur

. In this study, different amount of ionic liquid (IL), Aliquat 336 was mixed with polyethersulfone (PES) and Dimethyl acetamide (DMAC) as a solvent to fabricate ionic ultrafiltration membranes. Ionic liquids have many unique qualities includes negligible vapour pressure, thermal stability, and broad electrochemical stability window. Humic acid (HA) is have been identified as one of the water contaminant, where it can affect water quality. For fabrication of the membrane, dry-wet phase inversion method was used. Then, the fabricated ionic ultrafiltration membrane is applied to remove Humic Acid (HA) at 20 mg/L. The properties of ionic ultrafiltration membranes such as functional group, hydrophilicity and thermal stability were characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Water Contact Angle, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Then, the ionic ultrafiltration membrane was analyzed through its performance based on adsorption capacity, water flux, HA flux and HA rejection. Therefore, the new developed ultrafiltration membrane, M2 successfully achieved pure water flux of 806.08 L/m2.h, is 476.05 L/m2.h for HA flux and 705.61 L/m2.h. for PWF2. M5 has the highest adsorption capacity, 0.32 mg/g. Other than achieving 65º contact angle, M5 membrane also managed to reject HA as 90%.

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24
Effect of compaction pressure and sintering temperature of Mechanically-Alloyed Aluminium-Copper-Graphite Nanocomposite  [MST65]
By Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mahani Yusoff

Aluminium-copper composite is an alternative material for replacing Al alloys in automotive parts. The improve properties of Al-Cu composite are achieve correct processing method such as a combination of mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy. The effects of compaction pressure and sintering temperature on structural properties and microstructural properties of mechanically-alloyed Al-Cu-graphite composite were studied. Elemental powder of Al, Cu and graphite were milled in a planetary ball milling for 10 h. Then, the as-milled composite was cold-compacted for 375, 625, 824 and 1124 MPa and undergo sintering at 400, 450, 500 and 550°C. As-milled and sintered Al-Cu-graphite composite were characterized for phase identification, structural properties, microstructural and density. The result showed that after milling, the composite consists of starting materials but after sintering new phases started to form. Cu2O and CuO co-exist at 500°C and Al2Cu started to form at 550°C as Cu2O diminished. The morphology of Al-Cu-graphite showed that the sintered composite has denser structure with the absence of Al-rich and Cu-rich regions. The increment of the green density was resulted from increased of compaction pressure and sintering temperature. Higher sintering temperature (550°C), sintered density was reduced due to Al2Cu that cause the diffusion process of particle became slow during sintering

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25
Development and characterization of nanoemulsion containing Piper betle oil as the active ingredient using low energy emulsification process [MST69]
By Nurul Akmar Che Zaudin

The aim of the study is to develop and characterize the formulation of nanoemulsion containing essential oil of Piper betle. Plant based essential oil had been widely applied in cosmetics and aromatherapy, food flavoring or preservative and insect repellent products. However, these essential oils showed high volatility which can reduce the effectiveness of the products compared to the synthetic compounds. Hence, plant based nanoemulsion is one of the manners which can overcome the disadvantage of the essential oil and also can improve the effectiveness of the products. In this study, plant based nanoemulsion was prepared using low energy emulsification method. The Piper betle essential oil was extracted using steam distillation from the leaves of Piper betle and acts as active ingredient in the formulation. The Piper betle nanoemulsion was prepared by varying the ratio of the oil phase, aqueous phase and surfactant and co-surfactant. The droplet size, physical appearance test and stability were studied to investigate the characteristic of Piper betle nanoemulsion. Piper betle naoemulsion was successfully formulated and represented high potential as natural nanoemulsion product. 

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26
CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE AT COURSE GRAINED HEAT AFFECTED ZONE (CGHAZ) OF AS-WELDED CARBON STEEL [MST72]
By Dr. Sarizam Bin Mamat

Metal Inert Gas (MIG) is one of the Arc Welding  process commonly used to join  metal such as carbon steel, stainless steel and aluminium. As an effect of arc during welding, two zones produced when the temperature is applied which are weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ). Heat affected zone (HAZ) consists of  four area classified due to its metallurgical difference.   There are coarse grain heat affected zone (CGHAZ), fined grain heat affected zone (FGHAZ), intercritical grain heat affected zone (ICGHAZ), and subcritical grain heat affected zone (SCGHAZ). The most critical zone is CGHAZ since its located the closest to fusion area. Two factors that play an important role to the property at CGHAZ are heat input and the carbon content of the base metal. The control of heat input is important to produce a sound weldments with good mechanical properties. It is said that the increase in heat input will reduce the cooling rate, thus affect the solidification behaviour of weld metal, the grain size and microstructure formation at HAZ. In this experiment the variation of heat input is done through the amendment of the welding speed and its effect to the formation of microstructure at CGHAZ. Higher welding speed results in lower heat input, thus produces more fraction of martensite at CGHAZ and reduces the toughness at the area. Meanwhile, the variation of carbon content by using low carbon steel and medium carbon steel as a specimen. The experimental results  clearly show that the toughness of the specimen with lower carbon content is higher and the microstructure analysis also shows the lower fraction of martensite at CGHAZ.It is confirmed that the heat input and carbon content are important factors to be considered during welding.

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27
The Effects of the Applied Potential of Square-wave Deposition Technique on Electrochemical Properties and Photocatalytic Activity of Bimetallic AgPt [MST74]
By Dr. Setia Budi

In this paper, we report our study on the effect of lower potential (El) of square-wave deposition of bimetallic on its electrochemical properties and photocatalytic activity of methylene blue dye degradation. The electrochemical properties were examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique. Methylene blue degradation measured under ultraviolet (UV) radiation indicated a high photocatalytic activity was obtained from the bimetallic AgPt with low impedance value but high specific capacitance value. In this work, bimetallic AgPt synthesized at a lower potential of -0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl showed the most top photodegradation performance of methylene blue dye.

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28
MONITORING OF DRUG RELEASE FROM HYDROGELS BY ELECTROCHEMISTRY [MST76]
By Miss Jutharat Sukonthachat

Real-time monitoring of drug release kinetics from hydrogel was studied using electrochemical technique. The proposed technique was designed to simultaneously and continuously detect the hydrogel release of two synergistic antibiotic drugs, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, instead of the one of a single drug that is found to have less antibiotic effectiveness in multidrug resistant bacteria. The results show that the electrochemical technique can precisely analyze the drug concentration using two different chemical reactions in cyclic voltammetry. Chloramphenicol showed a reduction peak at -0.67 V, while tetracycline showed an oxidation peak at 0.8 V. The technique provided very low limit of detection of both tetracycline and chloramphenicol at 
0.1 mM. The release kinetics of both drugs could be simultaneously monitored to at least 3 days. The study suggests that the electrochemical technique is a promising method to reveal the real-time drug release kinetics of a hydrogel encapsulating two drugs for in-depth understanding and design of the drug-releasing hydrogel.

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29
Modification of Activated Carbon with Cationic Surfactant for Heavy Metal Removal [MST78]
By Ms. Norhafieza Mohd Azmi

Heavy metal presence in wastewater in particular fine particles poses potential risk to the health of human. The purpose of this experiment was to improve the adsorption method by modified activated carbon with cationic surfactant for removal of different heavy metal such as zinc, copper, and chromium. The samples were characterized by UV-Vis, SEM, XRD, FTIR and BET to know the efficiency of modified activated carbon absorbed heavy metals. The characterization of modified activated carbon using FTIR shows the presence of CTAB on the surface of activated carbon. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that modified activated carbon has higher porosity in the surface morphology compared to unmodified activated carbon. The BET analysis mentions that reduced in surface area and pore volume which were from 572.54 (m2/g) to 218.56 (m2/g) and 5.546 (e-01)(cc/g) to 3.172 (e-01) (cc/g)respectively. The increased removal of heavy metals shows the modified activated carbon lead to great improvement compared to activated carbon only. The highest removal using unmodified activated carbon was 61.42% on Cu(II) while using modified activated carbon was 85.72%.  This leads to higher adsorption efficiency of heavy metals using surfactant modified activated carbon compared to unmodified activated carbon.

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30
MODIFICATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON WITH ANIONIC SURFACTANT FOR DYE REMOVAL  [MST79]
By Siti Fazniyati Binti Fauzi

This study aims to analyse the characteristics of the adsorbent, activated carbon, and modified activated carbon with anionic surfactant (SLS-AC). Both adsorbents were used for the removal of methylene blue, cationic dye from aqueous solution. The adsorbents were investigated by using Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET).  Notably, the SEM showed a roughed surface morphology when the activated carbon surface was modified with SLS surfactant. In addition, the dye contents of the treated wastewater were compared before and after adsorption experiment to determine the improvement in consistency the effect of parameter such as contact time (t) and temperature to evaluate the ideal parameter condition for adsorption. For this purpose, the modified activated carbon by SLS surfactant had high adsorption potential (mg/g) and the percentage (%) for methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution. Comparatively, the surface area for the activated carbon was 572.537 mg2/g while for the SLS-AC was respectively reduced to 221.732 mg2/g. Instead, the effect of contact time for SLS-AC resulted 48.9% of removal with an adsorption capacity of 444.54 mg/g, which was higher than the activated carbon. According to the results, SLS-AC has shown the characteristic for applications in the removal of organic compounds in wastewater. The characterisation of adsorbents and the effect of the adsorption test are discussed.

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VIDEOs AND POSTERs SESSION (ASYNCHRONOUS)

A) Bioindustrial Technology
B) Materials Science and Technology
C) Wood and Forest Technology
D) Energy Technology
E) Environmental Technology
F) Mining and Mineral Technology
G) Agricultural Technology

 

 

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International Conference on Bioengineering and Technology (IConBET2021),
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