Environmental Technology


No. TITLE OF VIDEO PRESENTATIONS SESSIONS
1
Fixed Bed Column Filtration Using Pineapple Waste Activated Carbon For Dye Removal [ET07]
By Dr. Noor Syuhadah Subki

ABSTRACT

Dyes are used widely in various industries for colouring purpose. Dye wastes are one of the most concerning pollution in Malaysia. They are easily can be identified by human eyes and not easily degradable which bring detrimental effects to the environment and human. However, the disposal of dye can be treated by several alternatives In this study, activated carbon from pineapple waste such as its crown, core and peel were prepared by chemical acid activation using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) to remove pure Methylene Blue (MB) and Malachite Green (MG). The study was carried out to study the effects of particle size (125 μm and 335 μm) and adsorbent dosage (5 g and 15 g) by using fixed bed column experiment. The results obtained from this study showed that the highest removal for MB were 15 g dosage of pineapple peel activated carbon for both size (125 μm - 99.96%, 335 μm - 99.97%) while for MG were also 15 g dosage for both size (125 μm - 99.96%, 335 μm - 99.97%). This study shows that pineapple waste can be converted into something beneficial like activated carbon and can reduce the problem of waste abundance.

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Liked : 6
Question(s) : 5
2
Variation of Ground Level Ozone Concentrations and Total Column Ozone Concentrations Over Klang Valley  [ET14]
By Miss Nur Aqilah Binti Azmi

Ozone exists in the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere) and the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). Ozone impacts life on the Earth either positively or negatively depending on where it is in the atmosphere. Ozone in the upper atmosphere absorbs harmful UV rays but ozone is considered as an air pollutant in the lower atmosphere. In this study, variations of ground level ozone (GLO) and total column ozone (TCO) concentrations over Klang Valley, Malaysia in 2013 were determined. The GLO measurement data was acquired from Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia and is measured using standard method instrument, UV Absorption Ozone Analyzer Model 400A while, TCO measurement using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura satellite. The descriptive analysis shows GLO concentrations in all four stations in Klang Valley surpassed the 90 ppb recommended limit suggested in the Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Standard (NMAAQS) (2020). The diurnal variation of GLO exhibited highest maximum GLO concentration is in Shah Alam (141 ppb). Meanwhile, the highest TCO concentration was observed in Petaling Jaya with 286.4 DU. Analysis of TCO time series trend shows the existence of seasonal variation contributed by Northeast Monsoon (NEM) and Southwest Monsoon (SWM) as TCO concentration is the highest during SWM with an average 290 DU and the lowest during NEM with average 230 DU. This is due to environmental conditions such as low precipitation, low relative humidity, high temperature and long sunlight hours during SWM that favour an increase in TCO concentration. In contrast, high precipitation, high relative humidity, low temperature, and short sunlight hours lead to lowest TCO concentration during NEM. GLO trend analysis shows peaks mostly at the end of March to April and October (40 to 50 ppb). This is during transitional monsoon period which also has lower precipitation than normal. 

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Liked : 4
Question(s) : 4
3
Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) in Dabong, Kelantan, Malaysia [ET16]
By Hamzah Hussin

The research was conducted within Dabong, Kuala Krai. This study aims to analyze the probability of the landslide in the study area in the form of the landslide susceptibility map using the ArcGIS software. The study area comprises three main geomorphological units: very sloping plain geomorphology, sloping geomorphology, and steep geomorphology. Based on the AHP method in the ArcGIS software, landslide susceptibility in the study area was determined. Ten parameters have been chosen to determine the landslide susceptibility: slope, soil moisture, lithology, precipitation, distance to roads, distance to drainages, NDVI, LULC, distance to lineaments, and aspect. The weightage and score for each parameter had been assigned based on the references from the previous study. Ten maps from each of the parameters have been produced. In the end, the landslide susceptibility map of the study area was made by using “AHP ext 2.0” tools inside ArcGIS then evaluate the area under the curve (AUC) to know the accuracy. The susceptibility zone was divided into five: the very low zone, low zone, moderate zone, high zone, and very high zone.  It was later determined that slope is the most influenced to the landslide hazard because of the study area’s location on the hilly areas.

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Liked : 6
Question(s) : 4
4
Inventory Analyses of Dry and Wet Anaerobic Digestion Technologies for Food Waste Management [ET17]
By Mrs. Rozieana Binti Abu

This study aims to assess the life cycle inventory (LCI) of food waste (FW) treatment in Malaysia through dry and wet anaerobic digestion (AD) plants and landfills. LCI involves recognizing and quantifying all resources needed to treat the FW, such as electricity, water, raw materials, and processed materials, and indeed all contaminants discharged into the atmosphere, including pollutant emissions into the air, soil, and water, and deficits arising from the FW treatment method. The boundaries of the system involve transportation, feedstock, biogas, electricity produced, and bio-fertilizer processing. The management of one ton of treated FW is defined as the functional unit. The inventory evaluations for all three cases were modeled and evaluated using the GaBiTM database. The findings of the LCI revealed that the wet AD scenario depicts a drastic reduction in emissions of air (6.90E+01 kg) and freshwater (9.66E+03 kg) as compared to Scenario 1 (dry AD) and 3 (landfill). However, dry and wet AD demonstrated that there can be an estimated amount of 352MJ to 432MJ of energy can be produced by converting waste generated by the biogas process with a positive environmental impact. In all AD cases, pollution to air decreased from 7.28E+01 to 6.89E+01 kg, while contamination to freshwater decreased from 1.91E+04 to 9.66E+03 kg. The number of pollutants generated from the analysis of Scenario 3, in which all waste is brought to a disposal site, indicates there is a massive exposure of air pollution (5.12E+03 kg) and freshwater contaminants (1.18E+06 kg) from landfills. Carbon dioxide and methane are the two most significant sources of emissions. A more accurate result is suggested by contrasting the value chain with the related studies conducted. Then, by performing the third phase of a life cycle assessment analysis, the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) which the life cycle inventory’s statistics on elementary flows is converted into environmental impact scores.

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Question(s) : 3
5
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN UMK JELI CAMPUS USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHODS [ET22]
By Dr. Mohammad Muqtada Ali Khan

Universiti Malaysia Kelantan campus Jeli is developing rapidly and consistently where most of the water supply needs are met by surface water and potable water sources.These resources may not be sufficient to fulfill all requirements particularly during dry spells andduring any disruption in water supply. Keeping this in view, electrical resistivity survey were carried out in UMK Jeli campus to obtain detailed information on groundwater occurrences as an alternative source at promising sites to fulfill the water requirement and to avoid water scarcity in future. As per the existing geological information, the area is mainly composed of weathered granitic rocks. The Schlumberger array with a sixty one electrode of 400 meter were selected for this study and spread over five resistivity survey lines, where data were recorded by using ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000.The average result of resistivity values of five lines was in range from 15 to 2000 ohm meter. This resistivitydatawereprocessedusing RES2DINV software to obtain two-dimensional (2D) resistivity profiles which provided a clear view of the distribution of basement granitic rock, as well as potential groundwater zones by demarcating all the secondary permeable zones in the granites, particularly shown in survey line 3, line 4 and line 5. Moreover, the various aspects of the present investigation will enhance the new groundwater sources in the campus to meet existing challenges and those anticipated in future in terms of both quality and quantity of groundwater for new water supply.

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Liked : 50
Question(s) : 51
6
Public Knowledge, Perception and Attitude towards E-Waste Recycling Management in Kulim, Kedah [ET31]
By Wan Husna Wan Abdul Kadir

The rapid development of technology has led to a rise in electronic waste (e-waste). However, the recycling activity does not counterpart the amount of electronic production and the public are unaware of e-wastes. This research explores the public perception and attitude regarding e-waste recycling management in Kulim, Kedah. Face to face interview was performed on 382 publics in Kulim residential area, Kedah who were randomly selected as respondents to participate in this study. The results showed that the public has adequate knowledge, perception and attitude towards e-waste recycling management. 49% out of 382 respondents agree recycling can help reduce environmental pollution and 57.1%  also agree that it is their responsibilities to manage the electronic waste properly which are quite a good start towards inculcating recycling habits. However, around 37.7 % of respondents admit that it is difficult to manage old electronic equipment that may reflect their knowledge on e-waste and 43.5 % respondents were unclear on the proper method of recycling e-waste. It can be quite concerning issue because e-waste was too hazardous to the livings and environment. Hence, there is a vital prerequisite for disseminating awareness about E-waste’s growing hazard towards humans and the environment.

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Liked : 5
Question(s) : 5
7
Accumulation of heavy metals in core sediments from  Kelantan River near to Kuala Krai area as indicator for river pollution [ET38]
By Dr. Abdul Hafidz Yusoff

River pollution has been one of the most occurring phenomenal in Malaysia due to anthropogenic activities such as dumping, logging and industrial activities. In this study, the physical properties of the core sediments samples from 3 sampling points in Sungai Kelantan (known as KK3, KK4 and KK11) were analysed. The heavy metals concentration in the core sediment samples were analysed through Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and the concentration of heavy metals present were compared with WHO permissible limit.  The results shows only lead concentration exceed the WHO permissible limit in the mentioned sampling points. The pollution level were indicated through geoaccumulation index and categorized as class 1 with the range value of 0 < Igeo < 1. Thus, we can conclude that Sungai Kelantan in study area of KK3, KK4 and KK11 are uncontaminated to moderately contaminated.  Thus, we suggest the authorised body should take pragmatic and effective ways to manage the pollution to preserve the environment. 

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Question(s) : 1
8
Utilization of solid palm kernel expeller for attached growth of Chlorella Vulgaris sp.  [ET41]
By Miss Hemamalini Rawindran

The employment of attached microalgal cultivation in simplifying the microalgal harvesting process and reducing its associated costs has attracted much attention recently. As such, palm kernel expeller (PKE), a by-product generated from palm oil extraction process was used to grow attached microalgal biomass. Thorough characterization of PKE had suggested its potentiality in enhancing microalgal cell density. With regards to this, cultivation conditions such as concentrations of PKE and light intensities were varied to determine their influence in leveraging the dry biomass concentrations. Results obtained showed that higher dosage of PKE had significant improvement on the dry attached biomass concentration. However, the light intensity factor was found to be of least significance in this context. Correlation of these two factors in maximizing the attached microalgal biomass was obtained at PKE dosage of 2 g/L and light intensity of 60 µmol/m2s.

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Liked : 2
Question(s) : 5
9
Application of petrochemical wastewater treatment processes [ET43]
By Mrs. Sitra Muhaba Yimam

Due to the fact that petroleum products purification is a long process and the complexity of the production equipment used for the petroleum production, there will be a huge amount of petrochemical wastewater production, which contains residual oil and other harmful substances. The release of the petrochemical wastewater directly to the surrounding will cause serious damage to the air, land, water and living organisms. If untreated petrochemical wastewater is released into the water body, the pH value of the water will increase, the growth of microorganisms will be prevented, the hardness of the water will rise, and the colour of the water will be changed to black producing a peculiar smell due to the presence of sulphur. There are numerous processes used to treat the wastewater from the petrochemical plants, However, there is a limitation of literatures that studies all the treatment stages. Most of the studies only focus on one or two wastewater treatment processes, overlooking the tertiary (advanced) treatment stage. The objective of this paper is to analyze all the stages of petrochemical wastewater treatment and its effect on the environment. The study investigates more than 47 papers dealing with wastewater treatment processes. The finding shows that the primary treatment techniques (physical (Mechanical) and physio-chemical treatment) can remove up to 80% (average) of the oil from the wastewater. American petroleum institute (API) separator, Corrugated plate interceptor (CPI) separator and Parallel plate interceptor (PPI) separator are used for physical treatment technologies. On the other hand, the secondary (biological) treatment process can remove approximately 75% (average) of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the wastewater. The tertiary (chlorination, final sedimentation, filtration) treatment process also termed as the polishing stage, is to eliminate or reduce the pollutants in the wastewater coming from the secondary treatment stage to an acceptable level for reuse or release to the environment set by environmental agencies. It can remove up to 90% (average) of COD from the wastewater. gravity sand-filtration, membrane-based filtration such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes are some tertiary treatment processes.

 

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Question(s) : 4
10
Determination of bisphenol A in mineral water by Membrane-protected micro-solid phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detector [ET45]
By Mr. Muhammad Nur' Hafiz

The UiO-66-NH2 was synthesised and applied as sorbent in membrane protected micro-solid phase extraction (MP-µ-SPE) followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography - diode array detector for the determination of Bisphenol A in mineral water. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency such as the amount of sorbent, type and volume of desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time, salt addition, sample pH and sample volume were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method demonstrated linearity over 3.38 - 1000 µg L-1 with the correlation of determinations (R2≥ 0.99), limits of detection (1.12 µg L-1) and good recoveries (> 95 %) with relative standard deviation (RSD < 5 %). The proposed method was applied to determine bisphenol A in selected mineral water. 

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Question(s) : 4
11
LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY ANALYSIS IN KAMPUNG RENOK BARU, GUA MUSANG, KELANTAN [ET48]
By Wani Sofia Binti Udin

This study was carried out at Kampung Renok Baru area in Gua Musang, Kelantan. There is less details on factors affecting landslide from the previous research as well as the map of hazardous areas. The purpose of this research is to generate landslide susceptibility map of study area with the scale of 1:25,000 and to determine factors triggered landslide and mitigation step in study area. In order to assess landslide susceptibility for an area, it is necessary to identify landslide causal factors. In this study, this stage consist of creating landslide inventory steps via the interpretation of satellite imageries and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and selecting landslide causal factors based on their importance and data availability. Physical parameters that include slope, aspect, lithology, landuse, drainage density and distance from road were analyzed with each landslide group to examine the different influence of these parameters on each of the group. Weighted Overlay Method (WOM) in ArcGIS was applied in order to categorize interval data in this study. The factor map for each factor was intersected with landslide inventory map to produce landslide distribution-factor map. This process is conducted to assign weight to each class in the factor map to determine which of the classes in each factor have higher influence to induce landslides and also for generating the landslide susceptibility map. Based on the results, this research area are less prone to landslides that might occur naturally or by human interference to natural slopes due to their low vulnerability areas. The factor that triggered the landslide were identified which is heavy rainfall intensity and anthropogenic activities  As a conclusion, this research leading to greater awareness on the landslide occurrence of study area and this map can be used for future land use planning.

 

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Question(s) : 6
12
Cognizance on Green Logistics in Improving Sustainability towards Society 5.0 [ET55]
By Dr. Syamsuriana Sidek

Recently, there is an increased focus in the matter of improving sustainability. This matter is also becoming a world agenda in formulating global goals blueprint known as Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all by the year 2030. This agenda, includes the implementation of green logistics in improving a countries sustainability. There are very limited studies in this subject area due to the lack of awareness of this issue, especially in Malaysia. This research aims to identify the level of economic performance awareness, environmental performance awareness, and organisational performance awareness towards improving the sustainability of green logistics in the Malaysian context to enrich the current findings. The sample was collected via a convenience survey using a structured questionnaire. Data of 387 respondents throughout Malaysia were analysed using frequency, descriptive and correlation analysis via IBM SPSS Statistics. The main findings concluded a high positive correlation among economic performance awareness, environmental performance awareness and organisational performance awareness towards improving the sustainability of green logistics. The nature of this study is crucial to the government and policymakers in the development of corporate strategies to implement green logistics plans in improving sustainability in achieving Society 5.0.

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Question(s) : 1
13
STUDY OF BIRD ABUNDANCE IN LALANG CHALET & CAMPSITE FOR ECOTOURISM IN KELANTAN [ET56]
By Mr. Muhammad Adib Bin Khairul Bahar

The potential of ecotourism in bird watching activities at Lalang Chalet & Campsite, Jeli, Kelantan is high due to its high diversity. This study aims to determine the species, level of abundance, and diversity of birds found in Lalang Chalet & Campsite. Also, this information is essential for building bird watching tracks. The bird observation method used was the point count in the morning and evening with three-hour periods. Three repetitions - about 31 species of 17 bird families, were found throughout the study. The highest abundance was Treron olax (E: Little Green Pigeon) in the recreational area and the hiking trail. The diversity index shows the highest diversity is on the hiking trail (H’ = 2.848), followed by the entrance (H’ = 2.841) and in the recreational area (H’ = 1.856). The observation track was divided into three lines according to the distribution of the birds, the entrance track (4.1 km), the recreational area track (1.4 km), and the hiking trail track (7.5 km). A total of 20 species were recorded on the entrance and hiking trails track, and 7 species of birds were recorded on the recreational area track. Various aspects of ecotourism growth can be obtained from bird-watching program: (1) promoting bird conservation among the community through bird watching competition (bird race), (2) conservation and ecotourism training to the community, and (3) improving the infrastructure and capabilities of non-governmental organization (NGO); Malaysian Nature Society (MNS-Kelantan) on ecotourism management. 

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No. TITLE OF E-POSTER PRESENTATIONS SESSIONS
1
REMOVAL OF METANIL YELLOW FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING KENAF CORE FIBRE AS ADSORBENT [ET01]
By Dr. Rosmawani Mohammad

Kenaf is a precious fibre plant of the Hibiscus cannabinus family that has many uses in the agricultural industry. Kenaf core fiber as agricultural waste can be used as adsorbent for the removal of contaminants from wastewater. The main aim of this research is to investigate the efficiency of raw kenaf core fibre as adsorbent for removal of Metanil yellow dye from aqueous solution. The parameters such as adsorbent dosage, particle size, initial dye concentration at different contact time and pH of dye solution was studied to verify the potential of kenaf core fibre as adsorbent. The results showed that 3 g of 0.125 mm adsorbent in 100 mg/L of Metanil yellow dye concentration for 24 hours at pH 2 was showed the highest percentage of dye removal. The results also showed that the equilibrium data were represented by Freundlich isotherm with correlation coefficients R2 = 0.9957 and the adsorption capacity was 0.0179 mg/g.

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Question(s) : 0
2
Determination of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Processed Food at Local Market in Malaysia [ET04]
By Mrs. Wan Noni Afida Ab Manan

Consumption of processed food is the most likely route of human exposure to heavy metals. Four selected heavy metal elements (Al, Cd, Cu, and Pb) were investigated to determine the concentration and to compare with the permissible limit provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). Four different brands of sausage samples (Brand A, B, C, and D) were purchased at a local market. The wet digestion technique was applied by using a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2. The prepared samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The highest concentration measured for Al, Cd, Cu and Pb were 0.98 mg kg-1, 0.08 mg kg-1, 0.11 mg kg-1 and 0.24 mg kg-1, respectively. In comparison with the permissible limit, all brands of sausages were exceeding the limit of Cd (0.025 mg kg-1). Meanwhile, for Pb, the brand D sample shows exceeded the limit, which is 0.1 mg kg-1. As for Al and Cu, all samples did not exceed the limits (1 mg kg-1 for Al and 0.05 – 0.5 mg kg-1 for Cu). Nonetheless, consuming processed food for a prolonged time with excess amounts may cause health effects. The measured concentrations helped in estimating the risks of health effects on consumers.

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Liked : 4
Question(s) : 2
3
 The Effect of Formalin Fixed Specimen Disposal by Burial on Earthworm [ET13]
By Musfiroh Binti Jani

Incineration, a thermal treatment, is a typical procedure for pathological waste management. However, the common practice is costly and its role in disposing human waste in respectfully manner is still questionable among local community. Deep burial method has been claimed as an alternative option to dispose the pathological waste. Formalin is widely used for preservation of surgical and anatomical specimens in hospitals and medical laboratories. Formaldehyde (CH2O) is a water soluble, pungent, colourless and highly reactive gas. Though the toxicology and the adverse effects of formaldehyde on human have been explained in details elsewhere, the effect on the environment is still considered very limited. This study was to identify the impact of formalin exposure towards earthworms by observing their reaction in different formalin concentration. A series of standard solution was prepared from 1000 ppm formaldehyde stock solution and the absorbance of formalin in the earthworms was recorded by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Result from this study showed the negative impact on earthworm caused by the formalin. When the formalin has made contact with earthworm, the earthworms will expulse to the surface of soil. Expulsion of earthworm onto the surface will make the earthworm vulnerable to its predator, for instance, ants and birds. Moreover, the longer formalin exposure to earthworm, the faster earthworm will die. In addition, earthworms cannot stand higher concentration of formalin exposure. Formaldehyde can rapidly degrade air, water and soil. It also do not bio-accumulate under environmental conditions. Hence, short-term effect of formalin can be expected.

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Liked : 6
Question(s) : 3
4
Detoxification of Heavy Metals from E. affinis Using Chelation Technique   [ET18]
By Dr. Nurasmat Binti Mohd Shukri

Euthynnus affinis (E. affinis) or mackerel tuna is one of the common fish species consumed in Malaysia. Currently, there is no commercial technology has been developed for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated fish species especially E. affinis. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of chelation technique for the removal of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), copper (Cu), Cd and Ni from fish species. In this study, heavy metal analysis conducted using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The initial concentration of heavy metals in E. affinis species were recorded above the World Health Organization (WHO) and Malaysian Food Regulation (MFR 1985). Three types of chelating agents were applied labelled as trisodium citrate (TSC), disodium oxalate (DSO) and sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT). The optimum conditions yielded in this study were 400 mg/L of chelating agents dosage at 1 hour of treatment at temperature 36.50±0.50 ̊C. Therefore, this chelation technique proved that this optimum conditions capable of removing 90% heavy metals from E. affinis which concurrently complied with the permissible limit set by WHO and MFR 1985. 

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Question(s) : 3
5
REMOVAL OF NICKEL AND CHROMIUM (VI) BY USING BANANA PEELS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION  [ET19]
By Siti Fatimah Mohd Hanafiah

Agricultural wastes had been recognized as having potential in adsorbing heavy metals. In this study, the effectiveness of banana peels in removing Ni (II) and Cr (VI) in aqueous solution was determined through adsorption process. The adsorption of Ni (II) and Cr (VI) onto raw and acid-treated banana peel was conducted under different physico-chemical key parameters such as contact time (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 minutes), pH (3, 5, 7, 9, 11), adsorbent dosage (1.0, 1.5, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0g) and initial concentration of Ni (II) and Cr (VI) (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/L). The optimum removal of Ni (II) (79%) using acid-treated banana was obtained at the following parameters; initial concentration of 10 mg/L, adsorbent dosage of 1.0 g, pH7 and contact time of 120 minutes. Meanwhile, the optimum removal of Cr (VI) (100%) was obtained at the following parameters; initial concentration of 30 mg/L, adsorbent dosage of 1.5 g, pH 3 and contact time of 120 minutes. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant mean difference between percent removal of both heavy metals by using raw and acid-treated banana peels. This study showed that acid-treated banana peels can be used as suitable and cost-effective adsorption agent for Ni (II) and Cr (VI) in aqueous solution.

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6
A STUDY ON ADSORPTION TECHNIQUE FOR REMOVAL OF Pb2+ FROM AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL [ET21]
By Ms. Farah Shahirah Bt Mohd Fairuz

Adsorption is one of the efficient and effective methods for the removal of heavy metal in water sources. In this study, adsorption method was used for removing of lead (Pb2+) from an aqueous solution. Three types of soil including red-earth, clay and sandy were used as the adsorbents. The first part of the study was on the determination of heavy metal content in each type of soil, then followed by removal process of heavy metal in aqueous solution. The determination of heavy metals content in soil such as Pb, cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) and the content of metal in aqueous solution after removal process were conducted using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The results for determination of heavy metals content in each type of soil showed that the concentration of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr lower than the permissible limit stated by World Health Organization (WHO) and European United (EU). From this study, the optimum removal conditions were 5g/100 mL dose of adsorbent along with 10 to 30 minutes of contact time at ambient temperature. For the removal process, the adsorption capabilities of soils were recorded to be sandy> clay> red-earth. 

 

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7
Mining of Analysis-Ready Satellite Hydroclimate Data in Kelantan River Basin for Probability Density and Trend Estimation [ET23]
By Dr. Marieanne Christie Leong

The continual advances of satellite remote sensing technology have led to growing number of hydro-meteorological data, available for use in various disciplines. However, the conventional ways of utilising and extracting data from satellite imagery tiles often involves large amount of data to be downloaded, followed by a suite of processing procedures to extract the intended information. As the number of earth observations continue to increase unprecedentedly alongside issues with rapid climate change, there is a need to simplify and streamline data access and processing methods. Recently, NASA has introduced the Application for Extracting and Exploring Analysis Ready Samples (AppEEARS) tool which provides analysis-ready data that users can download via point or area sampling. This tool not only significantly reduces the amount of data users need to download but is also beneficial for users without geographic information backgrounds. This study aims to present the initial results for satellite hydroclimatic data, i.e., leaf area index, evapotranspiration and rainfall, extracted using the AppEEARS tool. The results of this study serve as a basis for understanding the moisture recycling relationship between these variables in Kelantan River Basin.

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8
Groundwater exploration in the Kuala Nerang, Kedah – Application of multi-electrode resistivity survey [ET29]
By Dr. Hamzah Hussin

An investigation of groundwater potential using an electrical resistivity tomography survey carried out over interbedded sandstone and sandstone in the Kuala Nerang, Kedah. The geoelectric resistance tomography survey method was chosen because it was widely used in groundwater exploration. The field data collection conducted using the ABEM SAS1000 set. Two lines of electrical resistivity tomography survey with 400m length using the Schlumberger protocol were performed. The data analysis results show the subsurface profile consisting of the bedrocks and the potential of groundwater zones. Bedrocks are characterized by high resistivity values, ranging from 500-1500 ohm.m. Groundwater potential areas are characterized by low resistivity values (less than 30 ohm.m) and low chargeability values (less than 2 msec). The potential depth of the groundwater that can be exploited is at a depth of 10-25m and 30-40m. The results of this study show the usefulness of the electrical resistivity resistance survey method to detect the potential of groundwater more accurately and reduce the probability of failure to obtain groundwater when drilling work is conducted.

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9
An Approach to Find the Potential Landslide Source Based on Intersection of Lineament Using SRTM DEM [ET30]
By Muhammad Fahmi Abdul Ghani

Landslides are among the geo-disasters that often occur in tropical climates and result in deaths and large losses. Landslide areas are often associated with poor slope structure conditions along with high rainfall intensity resulting in failures. This study aims to look at the relationship between the density of lineaments and the intersection of lineament to landslides events that occur in Cameron Highland. Lineament mapping is carried out by using shaded relief derived from SRTM DEM images. Shaded relief images are useful to identify lineaments in different distinct relief and topography and can enhance lineaments at different orientations by simulating topographic illumination under varied light directions. Combining multidirectional shaded relief images into a final image leads to enhancing lineaments within the eight sun azimuth directions. Shaded relief images with multidirectional light were created with angles of the light sources that are 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315°. Lineament map is converted to density map lineament with fishnet density where the density lineament classification is based on a 1 km X 1 km. The density map is further classified into three classes: low, medium, and high.

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Question(s) : 1
10
Microbial Degradation Of Food Dye By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa [ET37]
By Mrs. Wan Farahiyah Wan Kamarudin

The effect of contaminants to human health and environment are at alarming rate. This is due to the pollution in wastewater that are polluted with the effluent coming from industries especially food industry. Food industries use various types of dyes such as azo dyes. The compositions of dyes and pigments used in food industries generate hazardous and toxic waste. This is due to their carcinogen and mutagenic quality. Today, the most worried phenomenon is when the amount of azo dye concentrations exists in wastewater varied from lower to higher concentrations that causes toxicity to biological ecosystem. Physical and chemical treatment techniques have some disadvantages such as costly, time consuming  and development of residues. Adsorption on the microbial biomass and bioremediation by microbes can take place the decolourisation of the azo dye. Bioremediation takes place by anaerobic and aerobic process. This research project deals with the degradation and decolourisation of Tartrazine dye by bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in aerobic conditions. The maximum degradation of 72.65 % was observed under aerobic condition within 5 hours at pH 9.12 and temperature of 28.5ºC. The degraded metabolites of Tartrazine dye were analysed by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The effectiveness of degradation and decolourisation of Tartrazine dye by bacteria is within 5 hours in 50 ppm. The bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa decolourised several dyes from various industries. Thus, it is useful method for the development of wastewater treatment methods in the food industries.

KEYWORDS: Bacteria Pseudomonas euroginosa, Azo Dyes, Bacterial decolorization, Bacterial degradation, Wastewater treatment

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11
Optimization of Methylene Blue Removal by Casuarina equisetifolia using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the Application of the Optimal Condition on Batik Wastewater [ET46]
By Dr. Wan Hasnidah Binti Wan Osman

Batik industry is one of textile industry that evolves in Malaysia and gives contributions in the local people economy especially in east coast Malaysia. The presence of dyes in Batik wastewater caused serious problems to the environment and human health. One of the dyes used in Batik industry is Methylene Blue (MB) dye. This study was performed to optimize three parameters which are initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and contact time on the removal of MB dye in aqueous solution by Casuarina equisetifolia cone using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), and to validate the optimal condition established by RSM for removal of MB dye in Batik wastewater. The Casuarina equisetifolia cone was used as an adsorbent for the removal of MB dye in aqueous solution and Batik wastewater. The Batik wastewater used in this study was real wastewater collected from Batik industry located in Pantai Cahaya Bulan, Kelantan, Malaysia. RSM was employed using the Central Composite Design (CCD) for the optimization of the parameters involved. From the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), the coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.9736 (>0.8) was obtained. The optimal condition was established at initial concentration of MB dye of 2.0 mg/L, adsorbent dosage of 5.0 g and contact time of 3 hr. The highest removal percentage of MB dye in aqueous solution was found to be 98.24 + 1.00 %. The highest removal percentage of MB dye in Batik wastewater employing the established optimal condition generated by RSM was 92.32 + 1.78 %. This study shows that Casuarina equisetifolia cone is suitable to be used as an adsorbent for the removal of MB dye in both aqueous solution and Batik wastewater.

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Simultaneous Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions (Cu2+ and Fe2+) from Binary Solutions by Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC): Initial Concentration Effect, pH and Kinetics Studies [ET49]
By Mr. Mohammad Abdullah

In this study, simultaneous adsorption of heavy metals was examined by using binary component solutions. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used as an adsorbent for heavy metal uptake of heavy metal (Copper (Cu2+) and Ferum (Fe2+)) from aqueous solution in binary system. The result of adsorption experiment revealed that MCC presented more than 70% adsorption of Cu2+ and Fe2+ at high heavy metals solution and pH. It proposed that there are sturdy electrostatic attractions among the surface of the adsorbent and cationic heavy metal ions. Also, the kinetic studies for sorption of Cu2+ and Fe2+ onto MCC were better signified by a pseudo-second-order (PSO) model, which demonstrates chemisorption between the polymeric MCC adsorbent and heavy metal molecules. Bestowing to investigational findings, MCC is an attractive adsorbent for treatment of wastewater containing multiple heavy metal ions.

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VIDEOs AND POSTERs SESSION (ASYNCHRONOUS)

A) Bioindustrial Technology
B) Materials Science and Technology
C) Wood and Forest Technology
D) Energy Technology
E) Environmental Technology
F) Mining and Mineral Technology
G) Agricultural Technology