Agricultural Technology


No. TITLE OF VIDEO PRESENTATIONS SESSIONS
1
Improving Protein Hydrolysis of BSFL Content by Using Basic Salts Treatment [AT11]
By Ms. Lim Shin Yee

Protein is the essential nutrient in any animal diet. Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) has been recognized as an alternative protein source for animal feed. However, only half of the protein content is being absorbed in the small intestine. Therefore, this study was performed to enhance the protein hydrolysis of BSFL by using the alkaline salts treatment. Sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate (5, 10, and 15wt%) were mixed for two days at room temperature to examine the effect of salt type and concentration on BSFL protein content. The result obtained from the Bradford analysis showed the protein percentage had decreased for all samples with the increasing salt concentration. The percentage of protein decreased for 15wt% of sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate were 14.23% and 15.12%, respectively. This finding indicated that the alkaline salt could be potentially used for hydrolysing BSFL crude protein into smaller peptide molecules under mild conditions. Hydrolysed protein would become highly accessible and helps to improve the absorption and digestion of protein.

Keywords: Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL), alternative protein source, alkaline salt, protein hydrolysis.

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Liked : 124
Question(s) : 51
2
Effects of Fermented Soy Pulp (Okara) on the Growth Performance and Histopathological Changes of Red Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) [AT12]
By Mr. Muhammad Khairulanam Zakaria

This study evaluated the effect of fermented soy pulp (FSP) as a partial substitute for fish meal (FM) in the diet of the red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) via a feeding assessment on the fish’s growth performance. The feeding trial was conducted for 56 days based on five diet treatments (T1 to T5) at varying proportions of FM and FSP with three replicates for each treatment. The commercial pellet (CP starfeed)) served as the control treatment (T5).  The proximate analysis showed that T1 (30% FM, 50% FSP) and T3 (10% FM, 70% FSP) had the highest protein content, i.e., 18.1%, and 18.1%, respectively, while T5 (80% FM) showed the best performance in terms of specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Besides, T5 was significantly different (p < 0.05) from the other four treatments in SGR and FCR. By contrast, T2 (20% FM, 60% FSP) performed well in SGR (give value here) and survival rate (give value here). Meanwhile, except for T5, the remaining four treatments showed histological changes in fish liver, with less than 25% changes in T1, T2, and T3, and less than 50% changes in T4 (5% FM, 75% FSP). Together, these results suggested that FSP could be a supplement for the red hybrid tilapia. 

Keywords: feed conversion rate, fermented soy pulp, growth rate, Oreochromis sp., specific growth rate, survival rate

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Liked : 6
Question(s) : 2
3
Preliminary study on differential of stomatal conductance during day and night-time in eggplant seedlings (Solanum melongena)  [AT13]
By Dr. Engku Azlin Rahayu Binti Engku Ariff

Stomata are pores located at the epidermis layer of the leaves which function to control dehydration rate and gas exchange between the plants and its environment. Whereas, stomatal conductance (Gs) is a measurement of the degree of stomatal opening. Gs (mol m-2s-1) can be measured using porometer and can be used as an indicator of plant water status. Gs occurs during day and night-time in many plants, but the previous studies focused only on Gs during day-time. Thus, this study aims to compare the differential of stomatal conductance during day and night-time in eggplant seedlings (Solanum melongena). The experiment is conducted in open environment under shaded area using 30 eggplant seedlings. The leaf porometer is used to measure Gs and the measurements are taken during day-time between 10:00 am to 1:00 pm and night-time between 5:00 to 7:00 pm. The result shows that, Gs during the day-time is significantly higher compared to Gs during the night-time (P≤0.05). Since Gs is related to plant water status, this finding can be useful to predict plant physiological traits including photosynthesis and transpiration rate. 

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Liked : 4
Question(s) : 0
4
Development of Straw Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) Flour and its Application in the Baking Product   [AT19]
By Miss Saw Wei Xian

Development of Straw Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) Flour and its Application in the Baking Product

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This project provides an analysis and evaluation of new products launched by improving the ingredient flour to make gluten-free bread. The straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) was supplemented with gluten-free bread and wheat bread. This study aims to improve the proximate composition and physical characteristics of the gluten-free bread supplemented from mushroom flour powder. The analysis method includes proximate analysis following AOAC (2000) standard, physical analysis on the characteristic of bread using texture analyzer and Minolta Colorimeter, and statistical analysis comparing the different parameter by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The project findings provide scientific proof that gluten-free bread supplemented with mushroom flour powder has increased its protein, fibre, ash, and carbohydrate content and lower its moisture content. The hardness of the gluten-free bread can be reduced by additional mushroom flour powder. The texture of gluten-free bread is able to mimic the texture of wheat bread after the addition of mushroom flour. Along with the result obtained, mushroom flour powder is implementable to introduce as a new ingredient in making gluten-free products and increase the favour in gluten-free bread. This research is beneficial for those with gluten intolerant, whereby they can consume this gluten-free bread supplemented with mushroom flour to gain the same level of nutrition as wheat bread.

 

Keywords: Gluten, gluten-free bread, mushroom flour, wheat flour

 

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Liked : 48
Question(s) : 12
5
Physicochemical Properties of Bread Incorporated with Pink Guava (Psidium guajava) Pomace Powder [AT27]
By Miss Fazilawati Binti Shaari

Guava juice is a favorite food product from guava fruit, but it will generate by-products or wastes such as peels, outer leaves, and pulps. Reducing the by-product should be taken by converting it into something useful. The pink guava is very good for health because it contains high dietary fiber. This study represents the development of pink guava pomace powder (GPP) as a potential additional nutritional fiber source in bread. Several analyses determined physicochemical properties of bread incorporated with GPP. The results from four different types of bread with varying amounts of GPP; GPP 0%, GPP 10%, GPP 20%, and GPP 30% were analyzed statistically using a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Through the dough proofing analysis observed, GPP 10% was the best dough development according to fermentable sugar's reaction to the dough. The replacement of some wheat flour with the GPP reduced bread hardness, springiness, and chewiness significantly. The bread color measurements showed a significant difference between the control bread and the bread incorporated with GPP. However, the moisture content increased along with the increase of GPP concentrations. This study shows that the addition of GPP 10% could produce dietary fiber-enriched bread with good physicochemical properties.

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Liked : 10
Question(s) : 4
6
Role of Methyl Farnesoate with Ca(OH)2 or EDTA on Growth of Male Crab Ozithelphusa senex senex [AT30]
By Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ramachandra Reddy P

The worlds crustacean aquaculture industry facing many problems including limited production of quality protein. Growth induction a method of increasing yield of crustacean protein is in focus currently by the aqua culturists. A proven method of crustacean growth induction is by administration of methyl farnesoate. The optimum concentration of MF for effective molt induction was found 10-8 moles/crab out of three concentrations tested (10-9, 10-8 and 10-7 moles/crab). The molt induction frequency of MF alone, MF in Ca(OH)2 or EDTA medium was tested on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of experiment in all experimental males were tested in the present study. Concurrent controls were found in intermolt C4 stage only during experimentation. In case of eyestalk ablated group (ESX; a positive control) on 7th day observed majority crabs were in intermolt C4 (66.66%) and some are in premolt D1 (33.33%). In case of MF alone (10-8 moles/crab) injected crabs were in premolt D1 (66.66%) and D2 (33.33%). Group MF 10-8 moles/crab injected and maintained in 1.4 mM Ca(OH)2 medium received were in D1 (55.55%) and D2 (44.44%) stages. Intermolt stage C4 (44.44%) and premolt stage D1 (55.55%) were observed in crabs received MF 10-8moles/crab maintained in 5 mM EDTA medium on 7th day of experiment. On 14th day ESX group crabs observed in premolt D1 (55.55%) and D2 (44.44%). In case of MF alone (10-8moles/crab) received males, found in intermolt D2 (44.44%), D3 (33.33%), and molted were 22.22%. Crabs received MF 10-8 moles/crab maintained in Ca(OH)2 medium were observed in late premolt stages D3 (44.44%), D4 (22.22%) and 33.33% were molted. Premolt stages D1 (55.55%) and D2 (44.44%) were observed in crabs received MF 10-8moles/crab maintained in EDTA medium on 14th day of experiment. On day 21 of the experiment ESX males were found in middle premolt D2 (11.11%), late premolt D3 (33.33%) and (late premolt) D4 (33.33%), and some were molted (22.22%). In case of MF alone (10-8moles/crab) injected premolt stage D3 (33.33%), D4 (33.33%) and molted (33.33%) were observed. MF 10-8 moles/crab injected and maintained in Ca(OH)2 medium were in late premolt D4 (44.44%)  stage and majority were molted (55.55%) on day 21. Premolt stages D2 (33.33%), D3 (33.33%) and molted (33.33%) were observed in MF 10-8 moles/crab received and maintained in EDTA medium male group on 21st day of. ESX group on day 28 were observed in premolt D3 (33.33%), D4 (33.33%) and molted (33.33%). In case of MF 10-8moles/crab injected was found in premolt stage D3 (44.44%) and molted (55.55%). Observed 100% molt in animals received MF 10-8 moles/crab and maintained in Ca(OH)2 medium on day 28 of experiment. Premolt stage D3 (22.22%), D4 (33.33%) and molted (33.33%) crabs were observed in MF 10-8moles/crab injected and maintained in EDTA medium on 28th day of experiment. Results will be discussed for enhancement of growth in culture crustacean species.

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Liked : 6
Question(s) : 3
7
Effectiveness of Calcium Amendments to Alleviate Subsoil Acidity in Ultisols Under Oil Palm Plantations    [AT31]
By Mrs. Suzie Haryanti Husain

The growth of oil palm production in Malaysia is seriously inhibited by subsoil acidity. Correcting subsoil acidity, along with an increase in Ca in the subsoil, requires a decrease in Al concentration. There are few effective methods for subsoil acidity change. Due to its slow downward movement, dolomite applications, while effective in correcting surface soil acidity, have little effect on subsoil acidity. A column leaching experiment and an in situ field experiment were performed to investigate the amelioration effects of calcium hydroxide, CaOH2 (HL), calcium oxide, CO (CO) or CaCO3 (CC) compared to dolomite (DL) and gypsum (GY)  with surface application order to improve low cost and effective methods for the amelioration of subsoil acidity by surface application of modifications. Soil solution analysis findings have shown that surface-applied Ca-amendments can be used effectively to correct the acidity of the subsoil. These Ca-amendments more efficient than Mg-amendments in increasing soil solution pH, base saturation, soluble Ca, and decreasing soil solution AI[Y1]  and percent AI saturation, reducing exchangeable acidity to varying degrees for different segments of the soil profile. The high soluble Ca2+  content in the soil solution was also higher in Ca-amendments than in the soils that were unamended and modified by gypsum and dolomite. High soluble Ca content of Ca-amendments facilitated the migration of base cations through the soil profile, the exchange of base cations with interchangeable aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn), and the leaching out of the profile of soluble Al and Mn. Although the soil exchangeable Ca be increased by GY and DL, both of them also substantially increased the soluble Al and Mn about and 1.2 3  mmol-1 in the Ultisol profile. Besides, HL was, however, more effective in decreasing soil acidity and soluble Al and Mn increasing exchangeable Ca by about 23% compared to GY and DL in the Ultisol profile. Therefore, in improving soil acidity in the surface soil and subsoil of this Ultisol, HL was superior to GY and DL.

 

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Liked : 5
Question(s) : 2
8
Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of the Fruit and Petiole Extracts of Alocasia longiloba against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus [AT32]
By Mr. Ferid Abdulhafiz

Plant-derived secondary metabolites have been reported to have antimicrobial activities against several pathogens. Despite A. longiloba ethnomedicinal benefits, its antimicrobial activity is not yet reported. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic fruit and petiole extracts of A. longiloba against E. coli and S. aureus. Our results show, the ethanolic fruit and petiole extracts of A. longiloba contain various types of important phytochemical compounds among them are phenolic, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycoside, saponins, terpenoids and tannins. For in vito antimicrobial tests, both extracts of A. longiloba exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. All three different concentrations (5, 25 and 50 mg/ml) of fruit extract exhibited more than 90% and 80% in S. aureus and E. coli reduction in cfu/ml respectively. Whilst, the petiole extract shows more than 80% reduction effect in cfu/ml in both bacteria. In conclusion, the fruit extract exhibited the best antimicrobial activity against both bacteria with a significant reduction in cfu/ml and the antibacterial activity might attribute to the phytochemicals present in the crude extracts. These results indicate A. longiloba is a potential bactericidal and we suggest further research to be conducted to study the mechanism of action.

Keywords: Alocasia longiloba; Phytochemical; Antimicrobial; Antioxidant; Drug-Discovery.

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Liked : 7
Question(s) : 2
9
Evaluation of Moisturising Lip Balm Comprise of Natural Pigment from Tomato  [AT34]
By Mr. Nur Solehin Bin Sulaiman

The abundance of natural and homemade claimed cosmetic product is increasing. However, these products do not undergo any tests for safety to the users. The usage of perishable plant, yet very high in a beneficial active compound like a tomato in the cosmetic product formulation, is very beneficial. Hence, this study focuses on the stability evaluation of tomato lip balm. Before the extraction of tomato starts, heavy metal analysis was conducted on the tomato sample to ensure that the plant source is free from any heavy metal contamination. Three lip balms (X, Y, Z) were formulated and examined for their stability at two different temperature for four weeks. Finally, a commercial lip balm was used as a reference to compare the physicochemical properties of the formulated lip balms. This study found that the tomato sample used in this study is safe as the heavy metal concentrations are lower than the permitted value by FAO/WHO. These three lip balms are stable in both temperature while, formulation X shows the nearest properties with the commercial lip balm. Thus, tomato could be applied as one of the plant sources in lip balm formulation. 

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Liked : 7
Question(s) : 2
10
Economics of Irrigation for Small Farmers: A Case Study of Mango Growers in Karnataka [AT35]
By Ms. Mehjabeen

Do investments in irrigation infrastructure for small mango growers are economically viable? This paper attempts to know the thought process of the small mango farmers to adopt new government schemes and subsidies. Primary data collected during April 2016-March 2017 are used in this study. 320 smallholder farmers were personally, who grow mango in Srinivaspur, a sub-district in Kolar district, Karnataka, India. The results of the study are derived from the Arithmetic mean and percentage method. The magnitude of benefits absorbed by the economy and enjoyed by the respondents has been analyzed. Based on the study, it is suggested corrective measures towards the issues on the insight for future deliberations. 

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Liked : 5
Question(s) : 2
11
Utilization Of Digital Innovation In Small Food Industry           [AT36]
By Mrs. Aryani Abdullah

The research on digital innovation adoption among small food industry in rural of Kelantan are still at the early stage. The purpose of this study is to understand the drivers and barriers of small food industry toward digital innovation adoption. To investigate this issue, this  study  has  examined  the  driver and barrier of online adoption among food hawkers from two rural area in Kelantan. Intergrate by the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and Innovation Resistance Theory, this study proposes a    framework by decomposing 4 factors as driver and 4 factors as barrier. A total of 360 food hawkers from the rural area in Kelantan have participated in this study. Data for all the study variables have been collected through self-administered survey  questionnaires. The study has shown that the factor of driver and barrier are significant with the online adoption. Overall,   the   results   indicate   that   the   model   provides   a   good understanding  of  the  factors  that  influence  the  adoption of online business among of rural food hawkers in Kelantan. Based  on  the findings,  the  theoretical of  the  study  as  well  as  limitations and suggestions for future studies are also discussed

 

 

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Question(s) : 0


No. TITLE OF E-POSTER PRESENTATIONS SESSIONS
1
Optimization of formulation conditions for anti-wrinkle and whitening peel-off face mask from banana peels and mulberry leaves extracts using response surface methodology  [AT01]
By Dr. Siti Nuurul Huda Mohammad Azmin

Agricultural waste such as banana peels is a problem for the environment if it is not properly managed. In fact, the banana peel can be utilized in cosmetic product formulation such as peel-off mask because of the natural antioxidant content in the peel. Besides, another plant like mulberry leaves that could benefits the skins can be added to the cosmetic product formulation. Therefore, this study aims to optimize the formulation conditions of peel-off face mask from banana peels and mulberry leaves extracts.  In this research, Design-Expert software was applied in determining the best composition of peel-off face mask formulation. The best formulation was determined based on the product testing, including drying time, colour, pH and elasticity. The optimal conditions for the formulation of peel-off face mask were found at 15% polyvinyl alcohol and 0% of carbomer. This formulation then was compared with the commercial product in terms of its physicochemical properties. The formulated mask in this study could be commercialized, but some additional tests such as microbial, stability and sensory should be examined. 

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Liked : 5
Question(s) : 2
2
MORTEX Technology Acceptance to Improve the Latex Production among RISDA Rubber Smallholder in Kelantan [AT02]
By Mrs. Tengku Halimatun Sadiah Binti T Abu Bakar

Technology has played a big role in developing the agricultural industry. Malaysia Rubber Board was introduced many technologies of rubber to increase the production of latex such as MORTEX technology. Unfortunately, production of the natural rubber in Malaysia was decreased to 62.5% in 2020 and it became worst when technology adoption or acceptance among smallholders was relatively low. This study aim to identify the MORTEX technology acceptance among RISDA rubber smallholders in Kelantan. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used for this study. A simple random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 100 RISDA rubber smallholders in Kelantan. Descriptive analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze this study. The finding indicates that there is negligible correlation between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and MORTEX technology acceptance. Besides, level of MORTEX technology acceptance showed moderate mean score (M=3.18), while high mean score showed by perceived usefulness (M=4.04) and perceived ease of use (M=4.03).  This study is significant to the government, researchers and smallholder or farmers to understand the factors and importance of agriculture technology adoption for improving crop productivities. The findings are significant and useful to promote further investigation of factors affecting the acceptance and usage of agriculture technology such MORTEX by smallholder.  

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Liked : 7
Question(s) : 2
3
Efficiency of Salicylic Acid and Calcium Chloride Foliar Application on the Growth and Yield of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) under Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) Hydroponic System [AT07]
By Dr. Norhafizah Binti Md Zain

Plant hormone and inorganic chemicals such as salicylic acid and calcium chloride were used to increase the crop production in agriculture. Therefore, the study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of salicylic acid and calcium chloride foliar application on the growth and yield of pak choi under Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) Hydroponic System. The plants were treated with salicylic acid and calcium chloride with a series of concentration: T0 (0.0 mM salicylic acid + 0.0 mM calcium chloride); T1 (0.5 mM salicylic acid + 20 mM calcium chloride); T2 (1.0 mM salicylic acid + 20 mM calcium chloride) and T3 (1.5 mM salicylic acid + 20 mM calcium chloride). The plant height of pak choi at T2 and T3 were significantly increased by 10.5% to 17% and 17% to 23%, respectively as compared to T1 and T0. A similar pattern was also observed in the leaves number and leaves diameter where it also significantly increased at both concentrations with the percentage value ranging from 12% to 32% and 18% to 30%, respectively compared to T1 and T0. A greater fresh weight was noted at T3 (P≤0.05) with the mean value of 127 g as compared to the T1 (78 g) and T0 (57 g). However, plants that treated with T2 and T3 concentration did not give any significant difference in both growth and yield parameters. In term of chlorophyll content, all treatments did not give any effect on pak choi with the mean values ranging from 40 nm to 50 nm. The results suggest that T2 was found to be the optimum concentration that can be applied for the production of pak choi since lower concentration of salicylic acid capable in increased the growth and yield of pak choi.

 

Keywords: salicylic acid, calcium chloride, hydroponic, pak choi, growth and yield 

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Liked : 13
Question(s) : 7
4
ANTIMICROBIAL & ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF MALAYSIAN ULAM [AT09]
By Nurfathin Diyana Bt Jowani

Since a long time ago, “serai kayu” or its scientific name Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp have become traditional herbs for health and thus many studies done to confirm the medical effectiveness. Besides, an alternative natural antimicrobial agent and antioxidant searched from natural sources are preferred over the expensive and unsafe synthetic. This present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanol extracts of S. polyanthum leaves. Antibacterial activity was tested against three foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) by agar disc and well diffusion method. The extracts were found to exert antibacterial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus and B. cereus but resistant to Gram-negative E. coli. The zones of inhibition shown by disc diffusion method for S. aureus were between 7.0-11.0 mm while B. cereus had zone of inhibition of 8.0-12.0 mm. The range zone of inhibition exhibited using well diffusion method were 12.0-19.0 mm and 12.0-17.0 mm against S. aureus and B. cereus, respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured using diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The antioxidant activity was expressed as percentage (%) of DPPH and IC50 value. S. polyanthum ethanolic extract showed higher antioxidant activity for DPPH compared to the BHT which is referred as standard. The IC50 value of the plant extract and BHT are 0.43 µg/mL and 2.76 µg/mL respectively. The smaller the IC50 means it has higher antioxidant activity because IC50 value is inversely proportional to the antioxidant property in the sample. The finding suggested ethanolic extract of “serai kayu” extract as a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent.

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Liked : 5
Question(s) : 4
5
Optimization of Bromelain Enzyme Extraction from Pineapple Waste and Its Application as Meat Tenderizer [AT10]
By Noor Hidayu Abdul Rani

Bromelain is a general name for a family of sulfhydryl proteolytic enzymes obtained from Ananas comosus, the pineapple plant. The objective of the present study is to compare the activity of Bromelain from pineapple fruit and peel and to check the efficiency of this crude Bromelain enzyme in unhairing step in leather processing. The crude Bromelain was extracted and activity of enzyme was measured using tyrosine as standard and expressed in Units/mL of enzyme. The effect of preservatives such as sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulphite on the activity of the enzyme was studied for one week. The effect of pH (3-5) was studied using suitable pH buffer solutions. The kinetics of the proteolytic activity of the enzyme was studied using casein as substrate. It was found that the optimum pH of the crude extract was 4.5. In general enzyme activity got affected by the use of preservatives. The kinetic studies show that the activity of enzyme was increasing during initial period. The unhairing activity of crude extract of pH 4.5 was also studied using cow hide pieces. After 24 h treatment with the extracted crude Bromelain enzyme, good unhairing efficacy was achieved for leather making.

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Liked : 8
Question(s) : 3
6
Preliminary study on Potential Activity of Aqueous Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract as Natural Preservatives to Extend the Shelf Life of Raw Goat Milk [AT14]
By Dr. Khairiyah Mat

Various parts of the Moringa oleifera (MO) plant have been used for multiple diseases in human, with extracts showing varying levels of antioxidants and antimicrobial activity on the microorganism study. This work aims to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of aqueous extracts of MO to extend the shelf life of raw goat milk. The MO leaves extract 
were added to the raw goat milk in different concentrations and several tests to assess the function of these extract were then performed. The antimicrobial effect was examined by Standard Plate Count (SPC) procedure, conducted at room temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hours for various storage times. The pH was measured every four hours for the first 24 hours. The results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between control with MO1 and MO2 for 72 hours. Sample with the highest inclusion rate of MO shows a maximum inhibition of total viable count for 72 hours with 5.91 and 5.88 log (CFU/mL), respectively. However, no substantial difference (p>0.05) between MO1 and MO2 for 24 and 48 hours. The pH value of raw goat milk samples enriched with different concentrations of MO during 24 hours of storage at room temperature were substantially different (p<0.05) between control and all treatments. The addition of MO extract as a natural preservative offers a convenient and safe method of extending the shelf life of raw milk without altering the characteristics of raw goat milk. 

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Liked : 9
Question(s) : 6
7
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MULBERRY PELLET CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEAF-TO-STEM RATIO FOR RABBIT FEED [AT15]
By Mrs. Nor Dini Rusli

Multi-purpose trees like Mulberry species acts as alternative protein supplies in a partial or complete substitute for industrial feed. Mulberry leaf and stem have a good potential to substitute the commercial pellet in rabbit complete diet. However, in the rabbit pellets, the appropriate proportion of mulberry leaf and stem remains uncertain. Higher protein and less crude fibre than the stem are found in Mulberry leaves. Hence, the objectives of this study are to characterise the optimum formulation of Mulberry leaf-to-stem ratio for rabbit pellet by analysing the proximate and mineral analyses. Four formulations of Mulberry pellet with different Mulberry leaf-to-stem ratios were tested; F1 (1:0), F2 (9:1), F3 (7:3), F4 (5:5) with and without the sodium alginate. The crude proteins (CP) of the F1, F2, F3 and F4 with sodium alginate were 21.38%, 19.21%, 15% and 12% respectively. There was no significant difference of CP contents in Mulberry pellet formulations with sodium alginate and without sodium alginate (p>0.05). Meanwhile, the crude fibre (CF) contents of F1, F2, F3 and F4 were 7.91%, 10.76%, 12.56% and 16.26% respectively. In term of mineral analysis, calcium content (%) in the Mulberry pellets with sodium alginate showed significantly higher than the pellet without sodium alginate (p<0.05). Considering the rabbit feeding requirement of CP, CF and all nutrients, F3 (7:3) was chosen as the optimum formulation of Mulberry leaf-to-stem ratio with sodium alginate as the binding agent.      

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Liked : 7
Question(s) : 2
8
The Study of Suitability of Alkaline Treatment for Lignin Reduction in Banana Stem and Peel Using Response Surface Methodology [AT26]
By Miss Anis Nabilah Ahmad

The use of banana by-product as ruminant feed has been applied in the country with high banana production, yet there is still a lack of research conducted to identify the digestibility of banana plantain in ruminant.in this study, the suitability of lignin reduction in banana stem (BS) and peel (BP) using alkaline pre-treatment was investigated. Three parameters were tested to reduce the lignin. The parameters are the concentration of sodium hydroxide (1m, 5.5m, 10m), contact time (1 hour, 6.5 hours, 12 hours) and weight of the sample (0.5g, 2.75g, 5g). The correlation coefficients for both responses were performed by using a central composite design (CCD). The correlation coefficient values for banana stem and banana peel are 0.8632 and 0.4124, respectively. The optimum lignin removal condition for banana stem predicted by response surface methodology (RSM) was found at 6% with 9.76h, 7.92m and 4.98g, and banana peel at 10.09% 1 h, 10m and 0.5g. Alkaline pre-treatment by using sodium hydroxide can effectively remove the lignin content in banana stem and banana peel. The effectiveness of lignin removal is also affected by the sodium hydroxide concentration and contact time, respectively, for banana stem and banana peel due to their difference in structure. Alkaline pre-treatment is suitable to reduce the lignin content in banana stem and banana peel.

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Liked : 6
Question(s) : 2
9
Evaluating Carbon, Nitrogen and Heavy Metal Content in Different Agriculture Biomass for Mushroom Substrate [AT28]
By Miss Siti Maryam Salamah Bt Ab Rhaman

Siti Maryam Salamah Ab Rhaman1 and Laila Naher1, a)

1 Faculty of Agro-Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Jeli Campus, 

17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia

 

a)Corresponding author:lailanaher@umk.edu.my

 

Abstract. Substrate is the essential requirement for mushroom cultivation as it provides the nutrition sources for the growth of the mushroom mycelia to produce fruiting bodies. Abundant of agriculture biomass such as oil palm waste, paddy straw, timber and sugarcane bagasse, lead to the uses for the mushroom substrates. These abundant biomasses are very less percentage using for human activities whereas remain part refer as agriculture waste. The agriculture waste can be uses as alternative substrates for mushroom cultivation due to the commercial substrates of rubber sawdust prices have been increasing and can affect the cost of the mushroom production. However, choosing different alternative substrates will gives different effect towards the yields and quality of the mushrooms. The mushroom substrates mainly composed by the sources of carbon and nitrogen that act as the essential element for the growth of the mushroom. Apart of the variation of carbon and nitrogen content in the mushroom substrates, the substrates also might content of toxic metal that can contaminate the fruiting bodies through the nutrient uptakes. Mushrooms have been observed to absorb and store variety of chemical elements where they can lead to the contamination towards the edible fruiting bodies. Hence, this study choose different agricultural biomass of paddy straw and oil palm frond with the commercial substrate of sawdust in order to analyse the substrates content for mushroom cultivation suitability. Thus, this study demonstrated that paddy straw have potential as alternative substrates for mushroom cultivation based on the C/N ratio value (0.5907) due to the high nitrogen content (84.92±9.71%) whereas mushroom need low C/N for better growth. While the heavy metal content for paddy straw are at WHO/FAO safe limit quantity Cu, Fe, Zn and Pb which are 0.1433mg/L, 1.5993mg/L, 0.8090mg/L and 0.0233mg/L respectively. However, arsenic content for paddy straw recorded the lowest amount between the treatments which is 2.0423mg/L and nearly reach permissible level. 

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10
Methyl Farnesoate Enhances Hemolymph Protein Levels and Hepatopancreatic Index in Male Crab Ozithelphusa senex senex cultured in Ca(OH)2 or EDTA medium [AT37]
By Dr. P. Ramachandra Reddy

Crustacean protein has valued importance in the worldwide food market. Growth enhancement in crustaceans attributed by various factors. In male crab Oziothelphusa senex senex (O. senex senex) the role of MF alone and MF in Ca(OH)2 or EDTA medium in regulating the protein content of hemolymph and hepatopancreas index was tested in this study. Male crabs were maintained MF alone (10-8 moles/crab) and MF (10-8 moles/crab) in Ca(OH)2 (1.4 mM) and EDTA (5 mM) medium tested for hemolymph protein levels and hepatopancreatic index during molt induction on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of experiment. Concurrent control with vehicle administration and eyestalk ablated (ESX; a positive control) groups were also maintained along with experimental groups. Concurrent controls are in intermolt and has no change in hemolymph protein and hepatopancreatic index compared to controls. The hemolymph protein levels and hepatopancreatic index was increased from intermolt (C4) to early premolt (D1) and decrease through middle (D2, D3) to late (D4) premolt and molt in experimental male crabs. The high amount of hemolymph protein and hepatopancreatic index among experimental groups during molt different molt stages observed in MF 10-8 moles/crab maintained in Ca(OH)2. It is evidenced that MF injected male crabs maintained in Ca(OH)2 medium is more effective for molt induction via elevated hemolymph protein and hepatopancreas index in crab O. senex senex. 

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Phytochemical Analysis and In Vitro Antidiabetic Potential of Labu Kayu (Crescentia Cujete L.) Fruit Extracts.   [AT38]
By Dr. Mohammed Arifullah

Abstract. Plants have been utilized medicinally for thousands of years by societies ubiquitously throughout the world. It is stated that 80% of total world's population use plant-based remedies as their essential type of healthcare. One of the plants which consumed by the native population in Malaysia is Crescentia cujete L. or locally known as Labu Kayu for a few medical purposes especially as antidiabetic agent. In this study, the fruit of the Labu Kayu selected and extracted buy using 3 different types of solvents (water, ethanol, and hexane) to determine their phytochemicals and antidiabetic potential. The phytochemicals of the fruit determined by TTC, TPC, TFC, TAC tests, and alpha-amylase essay used to measure in vitro antidiabetic activity. The water extract of the fruit shown highest TTC (0.16 ± 0.31 mg/g) and TPC (30.70 ± 1.31 mg/g) while ethanol extract shown the highest TFC (175.95 ± 0.32 mg/g) and TAC (2.22 ± 0.02 mg/g). The highest inhibition of alpha-amylase activity recorded in water extract (59.12 ± 0.99% in 1.0 mg/mL), followed by ethanol extract (37.57 ± 0.99% in 1.0 mg/mL), while the lowest inhibition shown by hexane extract (15.47 ± 0.99% in 1.0 mg/mL). IC50 values of water, ethanol and hexane extracts recorded as 0.60 mg/mL, 2.32 mg/mL and 4.00 mg/mL respectively. In conclusion, C. cujete fruit extracts are having bioactive compounds that can be used to treat diabetes. Further studies are required to isolate and characterize those bioactive constituents and determine their efficacy in in vivo models.

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Food Technology and Challenges During Pandemic of Covid-19: A Case Study from Flavorista (M) Sdn. Bhd. [BT12]
By Ts. Dr. Maryana Mohamad Nor

Abstract. The emergence of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created a tremendous global strain due to the rising number of infected cases. The pandemic has been regarded as a global vertical conflict due to the interrelated impacts of the pandemic on numerous sectors. The ultimate goal of the governments is to safeguard citizens from this pandemic, and almost the whole nation is locked down to avoid the spread of this disease. This lockdown or called as Movement Control Order (MCO) has had a huge effect both on the global and the local economy, with business cannot operate normally. This pandemic impacts the health sector the most, followed by the economic sector. Equally important, the food and beverage (F&B) industry as the sub-sector of the economy is also deeply affected by the waves of the COVID-19 pandemic due to several underlying factors. Therefore, a live-streaming discussion via Google Meet was performed with a food business operator from Flavorista (M) Sdn. Bhd. to recognize potential impacts and challenges faced by the F&B sectors in Malaysia during and after an MCO, as well as the potential food technology as a solution to solve the issues caused by this pandemic. The pandemic has generated significant impacts on the F&B industry including loss of revenue, increased expenses, and poor economic outlook. All sectors in the F&B industry are struggling financially to sustain their business operations during and even after the pandemic of COVID-19. Challenges such as rising food costs, labor, and logistics issues, and adaption to digitization have been faced by the F&B industry due to the coupled impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR4.0). Experts said that economic revival would be a major challenge to the F&B sector but the advancement of food technologies can be a light of hope for the F&B industry to be adaptive to the new norm caused by the pandemic and be ready to rise again. 

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VIDEOs AND POSTERs SESSION (ASYNCHRONOUS)

A) Bioindustrial Technology
B) Materials Science and Technology
C) Wood and Forest Technology
D) Energy Technology
E) Environmental Technology
F) Mining and Mineral Technology
G) Agricultural Technology